KAIKObase: An integrated silkworm genome database and data mining tool
© Shimomura et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
Received: 21 July 2009
Accepted: 21 October 2009
Published: 21 October 2009
The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is one of the most economically important insects in many developing countries owing to its large-scale cultivation for silk production. With the development of genomic and biotechnological tools, B. mori has also become an important bioreactor for production of various recombinant proteins of biomedical interest. In 2004, two genome sequencing projects for B. mori were reported independently by Chinese and Japanese teams; however, the datasets were insufficient for building long genomic scaffolds which are essential for unambiguous annotation of the genome. Now, both the datasets have been merged and assembled through a joint collaboration between the two groups.
Integration of the two data sets of silkworm whole-genome-shotgun sequencing by the Japanese and Chinese groups together with newly obtained fosmid- and BAC-end sequences produced the best continuity (~3.7 Mb in N50 scaffold size) among the sequenced insect genomes and provided a high degree of nucleotide coverage (88%) of all 28 chromosomes. In addition, a physical map of BAC contigs constructed by fingerprinting BAC clones and a SNP linkage map constructed using BAC-end sequences were available. In parallel, proteomic data from two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in various tissues and developmental stages were compiled into a silkworm proteome database. Finally, a Bombyx trap database was constructed for documenting insertion positions and expression data of transposon insertion lines.
For efficient usage of genome information for functional studies, genomic sequences, physical and genetic map information and EST data were compiled into KAIKObase, an integrated silkworm genome database which consists of 4 map viewers, a gene viewer, and sequence, keyword and position search systems to display results and data at the level of nucleotide sequence, gene, scaffold and chromosome. Integration of the silkworm proteome database and the Bombyx trap database with KAIKObase led to a high-grade, user-friendly, and comprehensive silkworm genome database which is now available from URL: http://sgp.dna.affrc.go.jp/KAIKObase/.
The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been domesticated for silk production for about 5,000 years from the wild silkworm, Bombyx mandarina. As the only truly domesticated insect, it is completely dependent on humans for survival and reproduction. Currently, it is one of the most important economic insects in many developing countries owing to its large-scale propagation and utilization for silk production. Comparison with its wild ancestor B. mandarina at the genome level provides an opportunity to examine the effects of artificial selection leading to domestication. In addition, it is the model organism for Lepidoptera, the second largest order of insects, which includes the most destructive agricultural pests. With the development of biotechnology, B. mori has come to be used as an important bioreactor for production of recombinant proteins [1, 2]. Silkworm genome information not only makes a strong impact on improving sericulture, but also facilitates the development of new methods for pest control.
Genome analyses of insects have moved rapidly in recent years, because insects are the most diverse species on earth and their characteristic biological phenomena are important resources for basic science and industry. Among model insects, complete genome sequences have been published for Drosophila melanogaster , Anopheles gambiae , Apis mellifera  and Tribolium castaneum . In 2004, the draft whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequences of the silkworm were reported independently in Japan  and China , but these produced insufficient genome sequence information because of shallow genome coverage compared with the analyses of the other species. Subsequently, the two independent WGS data sets were merged and assembled together with newly obtained fosmid- and BAC-end sequences. Although these two data sets were derived from two different strains of silkworm, sequence comparison revealed merely 0.2% difference at the nucleotide level. In addition, p50T inbred strain, which was used for WGS by Japanese group, was derived from the same origin of Dazao strain of Chinese group. The RAMEN assembler, which is featured a lookup table generation of seed strings for highly sensitive regions and rapid detection of overlapping reads and precise alignment by efficient banded dynamic programming, was used. Additionally, RAMEN includes a repeat untangling method for transforming a repeat subcontig flanked by two unique subcontigs into one unique contig, thereby circumventing problems associated with the high density of transposable elements in the silkworm genome . Among all the sequenced agriculturally important insect genomes, the silkworm genome assembly (432 Mb) has the best continuity (~3.7 Mb in N50 scaffold size) and provides extensive nucleotide coverage (88%) of all the 28 chromosomes. This was made possible by the availability of a high-density SNP linkage map constructed by the analysis of BAC-end sequences and integrated with a physical map of contigs established by BAC fingerprinting using the FPC program . In a related project, EST data derived from various tissues and different developmental stages were compiled in SilkBase  and proteomic data of distinct tissues at different stages were obtained from two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry . Finally, a Bombyx trap database has been established to provide reporter expression patterns and inserted positions of mutators of enhancer-trap  and gene trap lines.
With the tremendous accumulation of genomic information for various organisms, extensive tools have been developed for visualization of data and results. AceDB , C. elegans  was one of the pioneering databases, where genetic map, physical map, genes, clones, markers, and so on, were integrated and displayed in a format easy to see. The technique of placing linkage and physical maps side-by-side, first employed in AceDB was used widely in INE , NCBI map viewer , Cmap [17, 18], and other systems. Subsequently, genome browsers which present extensive genomic information of Mb-order such as chromosomes or scaffolds were developed and available as follows. 1) Ensembl is a portal system developed to handle very large genome and associated requirements of the human genome from sequence analysis to data storage and visualization . 2) GBrowse , which was developed for Drosophila genome sequences, has the browser software characterized by readily available open source components, and flexible configuration. 3) UTGB (University of Tokyo Genome Browser) was developed for Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) . Track showing information used in UTGB is an independent web application that allows enhanced expressibility and expandability of conventional genome browser. In order to construct a user-friendly and efficient genomic database for silkworm, we integrated all of the genomic sequences, map information, ESTs, proteomic data and information on enhancer trap strain into an integrated database called KAIKObase, where all analyzed results and data on nucleotide sequence, scaffold and chromosome are displayed by GBrowse and UTGB.
Construction and content
KAIKObase contains a total of 43,462 assembled data , including scaffolds (accession no. DF090316-DF092116), and contigs (accession no. BABH01000001-BABH01088672) not used in scaffolds, corresponding to a total genome size of 482 Mb (403 Mb without gaps). Among them, 192 scaffolds were mapped on to 28 chromosomes. An artificial gap of 500 Kb was assigned between scaffolds so that the entire length corresponds to 503 Mb (393 Mb without gaps). In addition, a total of 81,705 BAC-end sequences (accession no. DE283657-DE378560, DE378561-DE420875), 174,222 fosmid-end sequences (accession no. DE143284-DE189151, DE246947-DE248527, DE420876-DE647768), and 166,757 ESTs . The list of cDNA libraries with the corresponding accession numbers of the ESTs is provided in additional files 1 and 2 (ESTs derived from silkworm cDNA libraries).
The genetic and physical maps provide basic information for the silkworm genome. The combined maps contain the following type of data: 16,209 gene models, 1,532 SNP markers, 770 trait markers, and 5,419 FPC contigs. The gene models include 14,622 developed ab initio by the Chinese group using a GLEAN-based algorithm , as well as 1,587 genes including GPCR , OBP, CSP , cuticle protein , and tRNA genes  developed by automated and manual annotation by the Japanese group. The SNP markers were identifed from BAC-end sequences. Trait markers represent the positions of transposon vectors (mutators) in transposon insertion lines (enhancer-trap lines or gene-trap lines). The FPC contigs represent BAC contigs assembled by BAC fingerprinting.
KAIKO2DDB (Proteome database)
Information on the silkworm proteome is provided by the KAIKO2DDB . It contains 116 images of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at different developmental stages (such as 4th and 5th larval instars, spinning, and pupation stages) and from various tissues (such as midgut, fat body, middle silkgland, posterior silkgland, Malpighian tubule, ovary, and hemolymph). The spots provide information on products such as molecular weight isoelectric point. Corresponding ESTs and selected gene models are also shown on the gel images.
Bombyx trap database
The Bombyx trap database contains information of 288 transposon insertion lines, e.g. enhancer-trap lines  and gene-trap lines, the positions of insertions in the genomic sequence, expression profiles of genes for various developmental stages, organs and tissues including intensity of expression, and associated photos.
The KAIKO2DDB (Proteome database) consists of proteome data generated from various developmental stages and tissues of silkworm. The system was developed using the make2DDB II (ver. 2.50.1) package  from ExPASy . The Bombyx trap database provides two data mining approaches, namely, "Keyword search" and "Pictorial search" for information on reporter expression and positions of transposon vectors (mutators) in transposon insertion lines (enhancer-trap lines, or gene-trap lines). The sequence search function provides information on the position in the genome for query sequences using NCBI BLAST software . The keyword and position search function provides information on the position in the genome sequence for a query keyword as well as information for delimiting its range.
UTGB provides an intermediate coverage which is smaller than the chromosomal range provided by PGmap and UnifiedMap but larger than GBrowse coverage. Track items include FPC contigs, BAC-ends, fosmid-ends, and gene models. Track showing information using in UTGB is an independent web application that allows enhanced expressibility and expandability of conventional genome browser.
GBrowse provides a tracking function for restriction sites, FPC-contigs, 6-frame translation, DNA/GC content, contigs, ESTs, transcriptional profile, BAC, BAC-end, fosmid-end, gene models and genes, SNP-markers, and trait-markers. Pop-up balloons in the gene model track show links to: 1) sequence information displayed by the GBrowse function, 2) GeneViewer with detailed information for each gene, and 3) the proteome database. Pop-up balloons associated with the trait-markers show links to 1) sequence information displayed by the GBrowse function and 2) the Bombyx trap database. In addition, a BLASTn search without a filter option was used to map ESTs onto the scaffold; the queries were ESTs using the scaffold as the database. Mapped ESTs with the top score for each BLAST result and e-value less than 0.01 were chosen.
The GeneViewer provides an overall profile of the gene models. Display items are: 1) image of nucleotide and spliced nucleotide and results of a domain search in the Pfam database; 2) links to KAIKO2DDB; 3) detailed information on the predicted gene including chromosome number, position of exons and GC content; 4) results of a homology search using BLASTn (top 3 ESTs), BLASTp (top 10 proteins), HMMER and ProfileScan with the alignments of the sequence; 5) results of amino acid analysis in PSORT, SOSUI, MOTIF and Gene ontology (InterProScan and mapping of InterPro entries to GO) with graphical representation of InterProScan and, 6) links to the nucleotide sequence, spliced nucleotide sequence and translated protein sequence of the predicted gene.
Utility and discussion
Keyword and position search
The mining function through a keyword and position search is indicated by the blue arrow in Figure 3. A direct search in KAIKObase for information such as scaffold, contig, FPC-contig, SNP-marker, trait-marker, gene model, EST/cDNA, BAC, BAC-end, fosmid-end, and position on scaffold can be executed. Furthermore, the system provides a search for a specified region on a scaffold or chromosome. Search results are shown as chromosomal images with the retrieved position, and listed with corresponding links to the four browsers, one viewer, and two independent databases.
Sequence search (BLAST search)
The entry to this class of data mining is shown by the yellow arrow in Figure 3. The query is a nucleic acid or an amino acid sequence; in this way the tool allows finding the location of a scaffold or chromosome. The search result is listed with the data sorted in descending order of bit score with buttons linked to the four browsers. Furthermore, a mechanism was built to show manually entered starting and ending nucleotide positions at the top of the sequence search page.
We developed KAIKObase to provide effective data mining and efficient utilization of the silkworm genome information for functional and applied genomics. The genomic sequences, map information and EST data are compiled into an integrated silkworm genome database KAIKObase, which consists of 4 map viewers, a gene viewer, sequence search, and keyword and position search systems to display results and data at the level of nucleotide sequence, gene, scaffold and chromosome. In addition, integration of the KAIKO2DDB for proteome data and Bombyx trap database for transgene and reporter data further enhance the functionality of KAIKObase. A comprehensive silkworm genome database is indispensable for silkworm research. With introduction of various cutting edge visualization and mining tools, KAIKObase is a powerful data resource and contributes significantly not only to lepidopteran research but also to improve sericulture and to facilitate the development of new pest controls.
Availability and requirements
List of abbreviations
bacterial artificial chromosome
Basic Local Alignment Search Tool
expressed sequence tag
G protein-coupled receptor
odorant binding protein
polymerase chain reaction
whole genome shotgun.
We thank Dr. Takuji Sasaki for encouragement and continuous support to the Silkworm Genome Research Program. We also thank Mr. Shigetoyo Furukawa, Mr. Yasushi Miyashita, Mr. Yuji Shimizu, and the members of the Silkworm Genome Research Program for technical support. This project is funded by a grant from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan.
- Tamura T, Thibert C, Royer C, Kanda T, Abraham E, Kamba M, Komoto N, Thomas JL, Mauchamp B, Chavancy G, Shirk P, Fraser M, Prudhomme JC, Couble P: Germline transformation of the silkworm Bombyx mori L. using a piggyBac transposon-derived vector. Nat Biotechnol. 2000, 18: 81-84. 10.1038/71978.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tomita M, Munetsuna H, Sato T, Adachi T, Hino R, Hayashi M, Shimizu K, Nakamura N, Tamura T, Yoshizato K: Transgenic silkworms produce recombinant human type III procollagen in cocoons. Nat Biotechnol. 2003, 21: 52-56. 10.1038/nbt771.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Adams MD, Celniker SE, Holt RA, Evans CA, Gocayne JD, Amanatides PG, Scherer SE, Li PW, Hoskins RA, Galle RF, George RA, Lewis SE, Richards S, Ashburner M, Henderson SN, Sutton GG, Wortman JR, Yandell MD, Zhang Q, Chen LX, Brandon RC, Rogers YH, Blazej RG, Champe M, Pfeiffer BD, Wan KH, Doyle C, Baxter EG, Helt G, Nelson CR, Gabor GL, Abril JF, Agbayani A, An HJ, Andrews-Pfannkoch C, Baldwin D, Ballew RM, Basu A, Baxendale J, Bayraktaroglu L, Beasley EM, Beeson KY, Benos PV, Berman BP, Bhandari D, Bolshakov S, Borkova D, Botchan MR, Bouck J, Brokstein P, Brottier P, Burtis KC, Busam DA, Butler H, Cadieu E, Center A, Chandra I, Cherry JM, Cawley S, Dahlke C, Davenport LB, Davies P, de Pablos B, Delcher A, Deng Z, Mays AD, Dew I, Dietz SM, Dodson K, Doup LE, Downes M, Dugan-Rocha S, Dunkov BC, Dunn P, Durbin KJ, Evangelista CC, Ferraz C, Ferriera S, Fleischmann W, Fosler C, Gabrielian AE, Garg NS, Gelbart WM, Glasser K, Glodek A, Gong F, Gorrell JH, Gu Z, Guan P, Harris M, Harris NL, Harvey D, Heiman TJ, Hernandez JR, Houck J, Hostin D, Houston KA, Howland TJ, Wei MH, Ibegwam C, Jalali M, Kalush F, Karpen GH, Ke Z, Kennison JA, Ketchum KA, Kimmel BE, Kodira CD, Kraft C, Kravitz S, Kulp D, Lai Z, Lasko P, Lei Y, Levitsky AA, Li J, Li Z, Liang Y, Lin X, Liu X, Mattei B, McIntosh TC, McLeod MP, McPherson D, Merkulov G, Milshina NV, Mobarry C, Morris J, Moshrefi A, Mount SM, Moy M, Murphy B, Murphy L, Muzny DM, Nelson DL, Nelson DR, Nelson KA, Nixon K, Nusskern DR, Pacleb JM, Palazzolo M, Pittman GS, Pan S, Pollard J, Puri V, Reese MG, Reinert K, Remington K, Saunders RD, Scheeler F, Shen H, Shue BC, Sidén-Kiamos I, Simpson M, Skupski MP, Smith T, Spier E, Spradling AC, Stapleton M, Strong R, Sun E, Svirskas R, Tector C, Turner R, Venter E, Wang AH, Wang X, Wang ZY, Wassarman DA, Weinstock GM, Weissenbach J, Williams SM, Woodage T, Worley KC, Wu D, Yang S, Yao QA, Ye J, Yeh RF, Zaveri JS, Zhan M, Zhang G, Zhao Q, Zheng L, Zheng XH, Zhong FN, Zhong W, Zhou X, Zhu S, Zhu X, Smith HO, Gibbs RA, Myers EW, Rubin GM, Venter JC: The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster. Science. 2000, 287: 2185-2195. 10.1126/science.287.5461.2185.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Holt RA, Subramanian GM, Halpern A, Sutton GG, Charlab R, Nusskern DR, Wincker P, Clark AG, Ribeiro JM, Wides R, Salzberg SL, Loftus B, Yandell M, Majoros WH, Rusch DB, Lai Z, Kraft CL, Abril JF, Anthouard V, Arensburger P, Atkinson PW, Baden H, de Berardinis V, Baldwin D, Benes V, Biedler J, Blass C, Bolanos R, Boscus D, Barnstead M, Cai S, Center A, Chaturverdi K, Christophides GK, Chrystal MA, Clamp M, Cravchik A, Curwen V, Dana A, Delcher A, Dew I, Evans CA, Flanigan M, Grundschober-Freimoser A, Friedli L, Gu Z, Guan P, Guigo R, Hillenmeyer ME, Hladun SL, Hogan JR, Hong YS, Hoover J, Jaillon O, Ke Z, Kodira C, Kokoza E, Koutsos A, Letunic I, Levitsky A, Liang Y, Lin JJ, Lobo NF, Lopez JR, Malek JA, McIntosh TC, Meister S, Miller J, Mobarry C, Mongin E, Murphy SD, O'Brochta DA, Pfannkoch C, Qi R, Regier MA, Remington K, Shao H, Sharakhova MV, Sitter CD, Shetty J, Smith TJ, Strong R, Sun J, Thomasova D, Ton LQ, Topalis P, Tu Z, Unger MF, Walenz B, Wang A, Wang J, Wang M, Wang X, Woodford KJ, Wortman JR, Wu M, Yao A, Zdobnov EM, Zhang H, Zhao Q, Zhao S, Zhu SC, Zhimulev I, Coluzzi M, della Torre A, Roth CW, Louis C, Kalush F, Mural RJ, Myers EW, Adams MD, Smith HO, Broder S, Gardner MJ, Fraser CM, Birney E, Bork P, Brey PT, Venter JC, Weissenbach J, Kafatos FC, Collins FH, Hoffman SL: The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Science. 2002, 298: 129-149. 10.1126/science.1076181.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium: Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera. Nature. 2006, 443: 931-949. 10.1038/nature05260.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tribolium Genome Sequence Consortium: The genome of the model beetles and pest Tribolium castaneum. Nature. 2008, 452: 949-955. 10.1038/nature06784.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mita K, Kasahara M, Sasaki S, Nagayasu Y, Yamada T, Kanamori H, Namiki N, Kitagawa M, Yamashita H, Yasukochi Y, Kadono-Okuda K, Yamamoto K, Ajimura M, Ravikumar G, Shimomura M, Nagamura Y, Shin-I T, Abe H, Shimada T, Morishita S, Sasaki T: The genome sequence of silkworm, Bombyx mori. DNA Res. 2004, 11: 27-35. 10.1093/dnares/11.1.27.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Biology analysis group, Xia Q, Zhou Z, Lu C, Cheng D, Dai F, Li B, Zhao P, Zha X, Cheng T, Chai C, Pan G, Xu J, Liu C, Lin Y, Qian J, Hou Y, Wu Z, Li G, Pan M, Li C, Shen Y, Lan X, Yuan L, Li T, Xu H, Yang G, Wan Y, Zhu Y, Yu M, Shen W, Wu D, Xiang Z, Genome analysis group, Yu J, Wang J, Li R, Shi J, Li H, Li G, Su J, Wang X, Li G, Zhang Z, Wu Q, Li J, Zhang Q, Wei N, Xu J, Sun H, Dong L, Liu D, Zhao S, Zhao X, Meng Q, Lan F, Huang X, Li Y, Fang L, Li C, Li D, Sun Y, Zhang Z, Yang Z, Huang Y, Xi Y, Qi Q, He D, Huang H, Zhang X, Wang Z, Li W, Cao Y, Yu Y, Yu H, Li J, Ye J, Chen H, Zhou Y, Liu B, Wang J, Ye J, Ji H, Li S, Ni P, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Zheng H, Mao B, Wang W, Ye C, Li S, Wang J, Wong GK-S, Yang H: A draft sequence for the genome of the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori). Science. 2004, 306: 1937-1940. 10.1126/science.1102210.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yamamoto K, Nohata J, Kadono-Okuda K, Narukawa J, Sasanuma M, Sasanuma S, Minami H, Shimomura M, Suetsugu Y, Osoegawa K, de Jong PJ, Goldsmith MR, Mita K: A BAC-based integrated linkage map of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Genome Biol. 2008, 9: R21-10.1186/gb-2008-9-1-r21.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mita K, Morimyo M, Okano K, Koike Y, Nohata J, Kawasaki H, Kadono-Okuda K, Yamamoto K, Suzuki MG, Shimada T, Goldsmith MR, Maeda S: The construction of an EST database for Bombyx mori and its application. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003, 100: 14121-14126. 10.1073/pnas.2234984100.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kajiwara H, Nakane K, Piyang J, Imamaki A, Ito Y, Togasaki F, Kotake T, Murai H, Nakamura M, Mita K, Nomura R, Shimizu Y, Shimomura M, Ishizaka M: Draft of silkworm proteome database. J Electrophoresis. 2006, 50: 39-41. 10.2198/jelectroph.50.39.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Uchino K, Sezutsu H, Imamura M, Kobayashi I, Tatematsu K, Iizuka T, Yonemura N, Mita K, Tamura T: Construction of a piggyBac-based enhancer trap system for the analysis of gene function in silkworm Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008, 38: 1165-1173. 10.1016/j.ibmb.2008.09.009.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The C. elegans Sequencing Consortium: Genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans: a platform for investigating biology. Science. 1998, 282: 2012-2018. 10.1126/science.282.5396.2012.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Durbin R, Thierry-Mieg J: The AceDB genome database. Computational Methods In Genome Research. Edited by: Suhai S. 1994, New York: Plenum Press, 45-55.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sakata K, Antonio BA, Mukai Y, Nagasaki H, Sakai Y, Makino K, Sasaki T: INE: a rice genome database with an integrated map view. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000, 28: 97-101. 10.1093/nar/28.1.97.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dombrowski SM, Magiott D: Using the Map Viewer to Explore Genomes. The NCBI Handbook. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=handbook.chapter.ch20]
- Ware DH, Jaiswal P, Ni J, Yap IV, Pan X, Clark KY, Teytelman L, Schmidt SC, Zhao W, Chang K, Cartinhour S, Stein LD, McCouch SR: Gramene, a tool for grass genomics. Plant Physiol. 2002, 130: 1606-1613. 10.1104/pp.015248.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- CMap: Visualization of Comparative Maps. [http://gmod.org/wiki/CMap]
- Hubbard T, Barker D, Birney E, Cameron G, Chen Y, Clark L, Cox T, Cuff J, Curwen V, Down T, Durbin R, Eyras E, Gilbert J, Hammond M, Huminiecki L, Kasprzyk A, Lehvaslaiho H, Lijnzaad P, Melsopp C, Mongin E, Pettett R, Pocock M, Potter S, Rust A, Schmidt E, Searle S, Slater G, Smith J, Spooner W, Stabenau A, Stalker J, Stupka E, Ureta-Vidal A, Vastrik I, Clamp M: The Ensembl genome database project. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002, 30: 38-41. 10.1093/nar/30.1.38.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stein LD, Mungall C, Shu SQ, Caudy M, Mangone M, Day A, Nickerson E, Stajich JE, Harris TW, Arva A, Lewis S: The generic genome browser: a building block for a model organism system database. Genome Res. 2002, 12: 1599-1610. 10.1101/gr.403602.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ahsan B, Kobayashi D, Yamada T, Kasahara M, Sasaki S, Saito TL, Nagayasu Y, Doi K, Nakatani Y, Qu W, Jindo T, Shimada A, Naruse K, Toyoda A, Kuroki Y, Fujiyama A, Sasaki T, Shimizu A, Asakawa S, Nobuyoshi Shimizu N, Shin-ichi Hashimoto S, Jun Yang J, Yongjun Lee Y, Kouji Matsushima K, Sumio Sugano S, Mitsuru Sakaizumi M, Takanori Narita T, Ohishi K, Haga S, Ohta F, Nomoto H, Nogata K, Morishita T, Endo T, Shin-I T, Takeda H, Kohara Y, Morishita S: UTGB/medaka: genomic resource database for medaka biology. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008, 36: D747-D752. 10.1093/nar/gkm765.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The International Silkworm Genome Consortium: The genome of a lepidopteran model insect, the silkworm Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008, 38: 1036-1045. 10.1016/j.ibmb.2008.11.004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Elsik GM, Mackey AJ, Reese JT, Milshina NV, Roos DS, Weinstock GM: Creating a honey bee consensus gene set. Genome Biol. 2007, 8: R13-10.1186/gb-2007-8-1-r13.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mostaaguir K, Hoogland C, Binz PA, Appel RD: The Make 2DB II package: Conversion of federated two-dimensional gel electrophoresis database into a relational format and interconnection of distributed databases. Proteomics. 2003, 8: 1441-1444. 10.1002/pmic.200300483.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- ExPASy, The Make2D-DB II Package site. [http://www.expasy.ch/ch2d/make2ddb/]
- NCBI BLAST ftp site. [ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/blast/]
- GMOD, GBrowse site. [http://gmod.org/wiki/GBrowse]
- University of Tokyo Genome Browser site. [http://utgenome.org/]
- NCBI BLAST ftp site. [ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/blast/]
- PostgreSQL site. [http://www.postgresql.jp/]
- HMMER site. [http://hmmer.janelia.org/]
- ProfileScan site. [http://hits.isb-sib.ch/cgi-bin/PFSCAN]
- PSORT site. [http://psort.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp/]
- SOSUI site. [http://bp.nuap.nagoya-u.ac.jp/sosui/]
- MOTIF site. [http://motif.genome.jp/]
- InterProScan site. [http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/InterProScan/]
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.