Volume 10 Supplement 3
Identification of cell cycle-related regulatory motifs using a kernel canonical correlation analysis
© Rhee et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
Published: 3 December 2009
Gene regulation is a key mechanism in higher eukaryotic cellular processes. One of the major challenges in gene regulation studies is to identify regulators affecting the expression of their target genes in specific biological processes. Despite their importance, regulators involved in diverse biological processes still remain largely unrevealed. In the present study, we propose a kernel-based approach to efficiently identify core regulatory elements involved in specific biological processes using gene expression profiles.
We developed a framework that can detect correlations between gene expression profiles and the upstream sequences on the basis of the kernel canonical correlation analysis (kernel CCA). Using a yeast cell cycle dataset, we demonstrated that upstream sequence patterns were closely related to gene expression profiles based on the canonical correlation scores obtained by measuring the correlation between them. Our results showed that the cell cycle-specific regulatory motifs could be found successfully based on the motif weights derived through kernel CCA. Furthermore, we identified co-regulatory motif pairs using the same framework.
Given expression profiles, our method was able to identify regulatory motifs involved in specific biological processes. The method could be applied to the elucidation of the unknown regulatory mechanisms associated with complex gene regulatory processes.
One of the major challenges in current biology is to elucidate the mechanism governing the gene expression. Gene expression programs depend mainly on transcription factors which bind to upstream sequences by recognizing short DNA motifs called transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) to regulate their target gene expression . Although many regulatory motifs have been identified, large amount of functional elements still remain unknown .
Many genome-wide approaches have been developed in attempt to discover regulatory motifs from upstream sequences. The early computational approach for identifying regulatory motifs is based on statistical analyses using only upstream sequences of genes. Statistical methods such as maximum-likelihood estimation or Gibbs sampling, are effective for searching directly significant sequence motifs from multiple upstream sequences [3, 4]. Several computational approaches based on machine learning methods have also been implemented. A SOM (self-organizing map)-based clustering method can find regulatory sequence motifs by grouping relevant sequence patterns  and a graph-theoretic approach has tried to identify regulatory motifs by searching the maximum density subgraph .
More advanced approaches have been developed that can identify regulatory motifs by linking gene expression profiles and motif patterns. The main advantage of these approaches is that they can identify motifs correlated to specific biological processes. Most early trials used a unidirectional search, such as approaches that search for shared patterns with upstream sequences in a set of co-expressed genes that were found by clustering algorithms [7, 8] or those that determine whether genes with common regulatory elements are co-expressed [9, 10]. In addition, it is also possible to link motifs to gene expression patterns using linear regression models or regression trees [11, 12]. Recently, several techniques for a bidirectional search to detect the relationship between the regulatory motifs and the gene expression profiles have been emerged [13, 14]. They search regulatory motifs more efficiently than unidirectional approaches since they search similar expression patterns and regulatory motifs correlated to them simultaneously.
We applied the kernel CCA to a paired set of upstream sequence motifs of genes and their expression profiles in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell cycle, and explored significant relationships between motifs and expression profiles. We also searched for regulatory motifs correlated with specific expression patterns. Our method retrieved regulatory motifs that play an important role in cell cycle regulation including several well-known cell cycle regulatory motifs: MCB, SCB and SFF'. Furthermore, we identified motif pairs associated with the gene expression to construct a map of combinatorial regulation of regulators.
Results and discussion
We applied a computational method, kernel CCA, to the identification of novel transcriptional regulatory elements. The main purpose of our experiments was to find regulatory motifs that were associated with gene regulation in specific biological processes. Using the kernel CCA, we first found highly correlated features between expression profiles and the sequence motifs. The key motifs in gene regulation were then identified from the weight scheme by the kernel CCA (see Methods section). Furthermore we demonstrate that it is possible for our method to be applied for identification of motif pairs using raw upstream sequences.
Identification of the relationship between gene expression and known motifs
Known regulatory motifs in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
The list of top ranked motifs based on the weight scheme by the kernel CCA
Identification of cell cycle-related motifs
High-scored motifs in the first and the second components using 5-mer raw upstream sequences
Combinational effects of regulatory motifs
We searched the motif pairs that have synergistic or co-regulatory combination effects in the yeast cell cycle. The regulatory mechanisms of eukaryotes are highly complex since most genes are normally synergistically regulated by different transcription factors. Therefore, identifying the synergistic motif combinations can contribute to systematically understanding the regulatory circuit.
The top 10 ranked motif pairs and their ECRScores
We presented a novel method that can identify the candidate conditional specific regulatory motifs by employing kernel-based methods. The application of the kernel CCA enables us to detect correlations between heterogeneous datasets, consisting of upstream sequences and expression profiles. From a data-mining perspective, our work is regarded as a new approach for detecting important features from regulatory sequences and gene expression profiles. We demonstrated that major motifs in a specific biological process can be extracted by a CC score via modelling a close relationship between two datasets related to gene regulation.
As genome-wide datasets of various types become available, it's important to analyze these datasets in an integrated manner . It is possible to come up with novel biological hypotheses by integrating diverse biological resources generated for specific research purposes. In these aspects, the kernel CCA is regarded as a useful method that can extract the biological factors with significant roles by integrating different types of biological data. Many studies for identifying motifs have been based on sequence conservation or sequence characteristics, regardless of the biological processes. Therefore our method can be regarded as complementary approach in the analysis of gene regulation.
Our method found important motifs related to the cell cycle by using raw upstream sequences as well as known motif sets. In the present study we used the raw sequences of window size, l = 5. If we enlarged the window size, the dimension for sequence features increased exponentially, whereas the frequency of motifs decreased. Although the window size used in our experiments was shorter than the length of several known transcription factor binding sequences, it was long enough to obtain worthwhile results.
In the future research, we will apply the proposed method to diverse gene expression datasets, especially cancer-related datasets. The cancer-related regulatory program can be elucidated by analyzing regulatory motifs from a set of enriched genes in the cancer transcriptome . Using the kernel CCA, a correlation analysis between regulatory sequences and the cancer transcriptome may directly catch regulatory motifs related to the abnormal gene regulatory program.
Investigation of the relationship between regulatory sequence motifs and expression profiles
Kernel CCA (Canonical correlation analysis) is a version of the nonlinear CCA, where the kernel trick is utilized to find nonlinearly correlated features from two datasets [15–17]. CCA is a classical multivariate statistical method for finding linearly correlated features from a pair of datasets . Suppose there is a pair of multivariates x and y, CCA finds a pair of linear transformations such that the correlation coefficient between extracted features is maximized. However, if there is a nonlinear relationship between the variates, CCA does not always extract useful features.
Kernel CCA offers a solution for overcoming the linearity by first projecting the data into a higher dimensional feature space. While CCA is limited to linear features, kernel CCA can capture nonlinear relationships. Kernel CCA has been used for several applications including text retrieval and biological data analysis [15, 37].
A high weight value of the specific sequence motif means that the motif is strongly correlated with the expression patterns of genes whose upstream region includes the motif and whose CC scores are high. If a weight of a specific motif has a high absolute value, the motif is more likely to play a regulatory role in the specific biological process. The kernel CCA was implemented using Matlab.
Preparation of the gene expression datasets
where σ is a parameter and function d(•,•) is a Euclidean distance. The x and x' mean the two different instances.
Preparation of the gene sequence datasets
The sequence data was used in two ways. In the first case, we used the sequences of a total of 42 known motifs (Table 1) extracted by Pilpel . We then scanned the upstream regions of ORFs for the presence of these motifs using the AlignACE program . The sequence profile was represented by the occurrence of these motifs in the promoters of each gene in the genome.
In the second case, we analyzed the relationship between the expression profiles and the raw upstream sequences. We extracted ~1 kb upstream sequences of each gene. From these sequences, we calculated the frequency of all possible l-mers in each gene. For l = 5, each gene had 1,024 (= 45) different base combinations. The sequence profile was encoded in the frequency of l-mers.
We applied the kernel as to the sequence data. When d = 1, it is the linear kernel, and when d > 1, it is the polynomial kernel.
Measurement of the effect of motif pairs
where N(m i ∩ m j ) is the number of all pairs of genes whose upstream regions have the two motifs, and N τ (m i ∩ m j ) is the number of gene pairs whose correlation coefficient is larger than the threshold τ. The threshold was chosen based on the fifth percentile of the distribution for correlation coefficients of randomly sampled gene pairs.
Other papers from the meeting have been published as part of BMC Bioinformatics Volume 10 Supplement 15, 2009: Eighth International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB2009): Bioinformatics, available online at http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2105/10?issue=S15.
This work was supported in part by KEIT through the MARS project (IITA-2009-A1100-0901-1639), KRF Grant funded by the Korean Government (MOEHRD) (KRF-2008-314-D00377) and the BK21-IT program funded by Korean Government (MEST). JHC has been supported by Korean Ministry of Information and Communications under 2005 IT scholarship program. The ICT at Seoul National University provides research facilities for this study.
This article has been published as part of BMC Genomics Volume 10 Supplement 3, 2009: Eighth International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB2009): Computational Biology. The full contents of the supplement are available online at http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/10?issue=S3.
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