Characterization of host microRNAs that respond to DNA virus infection in a crustacean
© Huang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 30 March 2012
Accepted: 30 April 2012
Published: 30 April 2012
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that are implicated in many processes of eukaryotic cells. It is known that the expression profiles of host miRNAs can be reshaped by viruses. However, a systematic investigation of marine invertebrate miRNAs that respond to virus infection has not yet been performed.
In this study, the shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus was challenged by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Small RNA sequencing of WSSV-infected shrimp at different time post-infection (0, 6, 24 and 48 h) identified 63 host miRNAs, 48 of which were conserved in other animals, representing 43 distinct families. Of the identified host miRNAs, 31 were differentially expressed in response to virus infection, of which 25 were up-regulated and six down-regulated. The results were confirmed by northern blots. The TargetScan and miRanda algorithms showed that most target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were related to immune responses. Gene ontology analysis revealed that immune signaling pathways were mediated by these miRNAs. Evolutionary analysis showed that three of them, miR-1, miR-7 and miR-34, are highly conserved in shrimp, fruit fly and humans and function in the similar pathways.
Our study provides the first large-scale characterization of marine invertebrate miRNAs that respond to virus infection. This will help to reveal the molecular events involved in virus-host interactions mediated by miRNAs and their evolution in animals.
KeywordsInvertebrate miRNAs WSSV Sequencing EST assembly Virus-host interaction GO analysis Evolution
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large class of small non-coding RNAs that are found in diverse eukaryotic organisms. They range in size from 18 to 26 nucleotides and are cut sequentially from the stem regions of long hairpin transcripts by two RNase III proteins, Drosha and Dicer [1–3]. The mature miRNA strand is liberated from the miRNA:miRNA* duplex and incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex, where it controls the expression of cognate mRNA through degradation or translation repression [4–8]. It is known that miRNAs have important roles in many eukaryotic cellular pathways, including developmental timing, cell differentiation and proliferation, apoptosis, energy metabolism, cancer and immune defense [1, 3, 9–13]. Host miRNAs are believed to be key regulators of virus-host interactions [14–16]. To date, however, information about the pathways mediated by host miRNAs or their evolution is limited.
It has been reported that infections of some mammalian viruses can alter the host miRNA expression profiles, and the expression patterns of some host miRNAs change markedly over the time course of viral infection [15, 16]. These changes reflect that the host miRNAs may have important roles in the virus-host interactions. These miRNAs may be involved in the host immunity to the virus invasion, or in virus infection to create favorable intracellular environments for virus replication. A systematic investigation of marine invertebrate miRNAs whose expression is altered in response to virus infection has not yet been performed . Invertebrates, which do not possess a lymphocyte-based adaptive immune system, rely entirely on innate immunity.
Since the first miRNAs, lin-4 and let-7, were identified in Caenorhabditis elegans as potential regulators of animal development [18, 19], 15,172 miRNAs have been discovered from various organisms (miRNA Registry, Release 17.0, April 2011), including mammals, plants, insects, nematodes and viruses. These miRNAs have been identified through computational or experimental approaches . Many miRNAs are conserved among related species, suggesting that their functions may be evolutionarily conserved [1, 21–23]. Using phylogenetic conservation and the criterion of a precursor hairpin structure (a characteristic hairpin structure with small internal loops, with the mature miRNA embedded in the stem of the hairpin), various computer programs have been developed to predict miRNAs, such as TargetScan , miRanda , MiRAlign  and Srnaloop . However, the computational approaches are limited to organisms whose whole genome sequences are available. Recently, the high-throughput sequencing approach has successfully been used to identify miRNAs from various organisms [28–30]. Although this approach may omit the miRNAs with low abundance, it remains the approach of choice for identification of miRNAs in organisms whose whole genome sequences are unavailable . Despite the large number of miRNAs that have been deposited in the miRBase database, this database is likely to be far from saturated as abundant miRNAs are still undiscovered from unexploited organisms. To date, identifications of miRNAs are limited to non-marine species, and very little information is available about the miRNAs of marine organisms.
In this study, the shrimp miRNAs involved in virus infection were investigated. Shrimps are one of the most important groups of species in marine aquaculture. In the past few decades, worldwide shrimp culture has been threatened by viral diseases, especially that by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) . Owing to the lack of a true adaptive immune response system like that of vertebrates, invertebrates rely completely on the innate immune system to resist virus invasion. The miRNAs of invertebrates in general and marine invertebrates in particular, in response to virus infection, remain to be studied. In the present study, the miRNAs of WSSV-challenged shrimp (M. japonicus) were characterized. The results showed that 31 shrimp miRNAs defended against virus infection by regulating immune pathways. Some miRNAs were highly conserved in shrimp, fruit fly and humans and function in the similar pathways. Our study provides clues to the molecular events mediated by host miRNAs in host-virus interactions.
Sequence analysis of shrimp miRNAs in response to WSSV infection
Shrimp miRNAs up-regulated or down-regulated in response to WSSV infection at different time post-infection
miRNAs conserved in animals
miRNAs with no homologue
miR-1, miR-7, miR-9, miR-10a, miR-10*, miR-33, miR-34 miR-71, miR-79, miR-92a, miR-92b, miR-100, miR-133 miR-184, miR-252, miR-71*, miR-let7, miR-2a, miR-2b miR-2c, miR-8, miR-12, miR-87, miR-190, miR-193 miR-263a, miR-275, miR-276, miR-276b, miR-279, miR-281 miR-282, miR-305, miR-315, miR-317, miR-750, miR-965 miR-993, miR-1000, miR-276a*, miR-281-2*, miR-8*
miR-S1, miR-S2 miR-S3, miR-S5 miR-S6, miR-S10 miR-S12, miR-S15
miR-1, miR-7, miR-9, miR-10a, miR-10*, miR-33, miR-34 miR-71, miR-79, miR-92a, miR-92b, miR-100, miR-133 miR-184, miR-252, miR-71*, miR-let7, miR-2a, miR-2b miR-2c, miR-8, miR-12, miR-87, miR-190, miR-193 miR-263a, miR-275, miR-276, miR-276b, miR-279, miR-281 miR-282, miR-305, miR-315, miR-317, miR-750, miR-965 miR-993, miR-1000, miR-276a*, miR-281-2*, miR-8* miR-252b, miR-278, miR-981, miR-bantam, miR-2001
miR-1, miR-7, miR-9, miR-10a, miR-10*, miR-33, miR-34 miR-71, miR-79, miR-92a, miR-92b, miR-100, miR-133 miR-184, miR-252, miR-71*, miR-let7, miR-2a, miR-2b miR-2c, miR-8, miR-12, miR-87, miR-190, miR-193 miR-263a, miR-275, miR-276, miR-276b, miR-279, miR-281 miR-282, miR-305, miR-315, miR-317, miR-750, miR-965 miR-993, miR-1000, miR-276a*, miR-281-2*, miR-8* miR-252b, miR-13a, miR-981, miR-bantam, miR-2001
miR-S1, miR-S2 miR-S3, miR-S4 miR-S5, miR-S6 miR-S7, miR-S8 miR-S9, miR-S10 miR-S11, miR-S12 miR-S13, miR-S14 miR-S15
miR-1, miR-7, miR-9, miR-10a, miR-10*, miR-33, miR-34 miR-71, miR-79, miR-13a, miR-92b, miR-100, miR-133 miR-184, miR-252, miR-71*, miR-let7, miR-2a, miR-2b miR-2c, miR-8, miR-12, miR-87, miR-190, miR-193 miR-263a, miR-275, miR-276, miR-276b, miR-279, miR-281 miR-282, miR-305, miR-315, miR-317, miR-750, miR-965 miR-993, miR-1000, miR-276a*, miR-281-2*, miR-8* miR-252b, miR-278, miR-981, miR-bantam, miR-2001
miR-S1, miR-S2 miR-S3, miR-S4 miR-S5, miR-S6 miR-S7, miR-S8 miR-S9, miR-S11 miR-S12, miR-S13 miR-S14
Host miRNAs involved in virus infection
Expression patterns of up-regulated or down-regulated shrimp miRNAs after WSSV infection
Counts of 0 hpi
Ratio of counts to 0 hpi at
up-regulation with ≥2 fold
Down-regulation with ≥2 fold
To confirm the involvement of these miRNAs in WSSV infection, 18 of them were selected at random for Northern blots. These showed expression patterns similar to those found by sequencing (Figure 2b); however, a little inconsistency was shown in miR-133, miR-193 and miR-2c compared with the results of sequencing, possibly owing to the low sensitivity of digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled oligodeoxynucleotide probes or for other unknown reasons.
Pathways mediated by miRNAs
Target genes of miRNAs predicted by TargetScan and miRanda algorithms
KRAB domain-containing zinc finger protein
acyl-CoA binding domain containing 7
ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 A
O-methyltransferase; fibroinase; Mn superoxide dismutase; DNA-binding nuclear protein p8; peroxin-11 C
Scavenger receptor class B; glycoprotein 25 l; vp28 (WSSV)
Dihydropteridine reductase; Tetraspanins-like protein
Peritrophin A; calcium and integrin binding protein CIB
Vacuolar ATP synthase
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit
ubiquitin protein ligase; Exoskeletal protein
eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF-1a); elongation factor EF-1 alpha subunit
ribose 5-phosphate isomerase A; small subunit ribosomal protein S6e
Melanization interacting protein; Fortilin binding protein 1; O-methyltransferase
hfb2 protein; (R)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate-pyruvate transaminase; Eukaryotic initiation factor 1A; maleylacetoacetate isomerase; hfb2 protein
solute carrier family 37 (glycerol-3-phosphate transporter), member 2; Rpl6, NV12167; ribosomal protein L6; K02934 large subunit ribosomal protein L6e; ubiquitin protein ligase; K10573 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 A; Nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein; similar to elongase, putative; E3 ubiquitin ligase
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A2; translation initiation factor eIF-4A; wsv477 (WSSV)
actin 1; microsomal signal peptidase; signal peptidase complex subunit 3
Eukaryotic initiation factor 1A; maleylacetoacetate isomerase
rab11; T-complex protein 1 subunit gamma
Rnps1 protein; RNA-binding protein with serine-rich domain 1; nuclear distribution protein NUDC; isopentenyl-diphosphate delta isomerase 1
ribosomal protein L5; Glucosyl/glucuronosyl transferase (Fragment); myosin heavy chain; Cationic trypsin-3 precursor Pretrypsinogen III; trypsin; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B; ribosomal protein L13A; microsomal glutathione S-transferase; glutathione S-transferase; methionyl aminopeptidase
similar to ribosomal protein L28; K02903 large subunit ribosomal protein L28e
putative beta-NAC-like protein; phosphatidylserine receptor
acireductone dioxygenase; ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase; Duplex-specific nuclease
phosphatidylserine receptor; cystatin B
The complementary binding between seed sequences of miRNAs and binding sites in target mRNAs might be conserved across species and might contribute to the functional conservation of miRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis, target gene prediction and pathway analysis showed that, among the 13 conserved miRNAs (miR-1, miR-100, miR-10a, miR-124, miR-125, miR-184, miR-33, miR-34, miR-7, miR-9, miR-92a, miR-92b and miR-let7), several highly conserved miRNAs (miR-1, miR-7 and miR-34) targeted the same or similar genes leading to the same pathways in shrimp, fruit fly and human (Figure 3b). This indicated that the beneficial miRNAs might be conserved during evolution because they aid survival.
As is well known, virus infection can disturb and subvert the host cellular processions and functions at several levels, such as changes in the expression of cellular transcripts, including miRNAs, and effects on the cell cycle or apoptosis of virus-infected cells . During virus-host interactions, cellular miRNAs, which are key regulators of gene expression, are crucial . However, we have not yet achieved a comprehensive view of the gene expression regulation mediated by miRNAs during virus-host interactions in marine invertebrates. In this study, an invertebrate shrimp was challenged by the DNA virus WSSV so as to characterize the host miRNAs involved in the response to virus infection. The results showed that 31 host miRNAs are involved in virus-host interactions, most of which are concerned with host immune responses. Our study provides the first large-scale characterization of marine invertebrate miRNAs and the pathways mediated by them in response to virus challenge.
Similar phenomena have been reported in mammals, the miRNA profiles of which are reshaped by hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus-1, human cytomegalovirus and Epstein–Barr virus [16, 37–39]. The host miRNAs might be associated with the regulation of host immune systems or viral life cycles. RNAi knockdowns of Drosha and Dicer, two crucial proteins in animal miRNA biogenesis, resulted in a decrease in mature host miRNAs, which led to increased sensitivity of host to virus infection [15, 40]. Some host miRNAs might thus represent antiviral miRNAs. When some putative antiviral miRNAs were blocked by locked nucleic acid-modified antisense oligoribonucleotides, the hosts failed to inhibit viral replication [11, 41]. In some cases, host miRNA expression might be promoted by viruses to reshape the host intracellular environment to benefit viral replication . In our study, phylogenetic analysis showed that the miR-1, miR-7 and miR-34 are highly conserved in shrimp, fruit fly and human and function in similar pathways. Our analyses predicted that miR-7, one of the miRNAs highly conserved between invertebrates and vertebrates, could target the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), a situation identical to that in humans [43–45]. Recent studies revealed that MAPKs were activated by invading HCV, the orthopoxvirus vaccinia virus and visna virus, which aided viral replication [43–45]. Our analysis indicated that the WSSV early gene wsv477 was also targeted by host miR-7, suggesting that host might inhibit virus infection by targeting viral transcripts with host miRNAs. It could thus be inferred that the functions of the conserved miRNAs have been preserved in animals during evolution. Because of the long evolutionary time since the divergence of shrimps and humans, studies on invertebrates would greatly benefit from even limited knowledge about shrimp virus-host interactions.
In our study, Solexa high-throughput deep sequencing was used to reveal the miRNAs involved in virus-host interactions. A total of 63 miRNAs were obtained, but no viral miRNA was revealed. This might be because of the small amounts of viral miRNAs. To characterize the viral miRNAs, an miRNA microarray could be used in the further studies.
Our study provides the first large-scale characterization of marine invertebrate miRNAs in response to virus infection. The results showed that a total of 63 miRNAs of shrimp were obtained, 31 out of which were differentially expressed in response to virus infection. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs found, miR-1, miR-7 and miR-34 are highly conserved and mediate similar pathways, suggesting that some beneficial miRNAs have been preserved in animals during evolution. Invertebrates could therefore be good candidates for increasing our still limited knowledge about virus-host interactions because of their long evolutionary distance from vertebrates. Our study could help to reveal the molecular events of virus-host interactions mediated by miRNAs and their evolution in animals.
Materials and methods
Shrimp culture and WSSV infection
M. japonicus shrimp (10–15 g body weight) were cultured in groups of 20 individuals in each tank with artificial seawater and aeration. Before the experiments, the shrimp were maintained temporarily for 2–3 days and three shrimp were randomly selected for WSSV detection with WSSV-specific primers to ensure that the shrimp were virus-free. Then the virus-free shrimp were infected with WSSV at 104 virions per ml by intramuscular injection using a syringe with a 29-gauge needle . After WSSV challenge, the lymphoid organs of five individuals were collected at various times after infection (0, 6, 24 and 48 h) and immediately stored in liquid nitrogen for later use. Shrimp assays were conducted in accordance with COPE (the Committee on Publication Ethics).
Sequencing of small RNAs
Total RNAs were isolated from the lymphoid organs of the virus-free and WSSV-infected shrimp at different times after infection using a mirVana miRNA Isolation Kit (Ambion, Austin, TX) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The quantity and purity of total RNAs were monitored using a NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer (Nano Drop, DE) at a 260/280 ratio > 2.0. The integrity of total RNAs was analyzed using an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer system and an RNA 6000 Nano LabChip Kit (Agilent, CA) with an RNA integrity number (RIN) > 8.0. About 200 μg of total RNA was separated on a denaturing 15% polyacrylamide gel. The small RNAs (16–30 nt) were excised, quantified and precipitated with ethanol. After dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase, the purified small RNAs were ligated sequentially to RNA adapters (5′-ACAGGUUCAGAGUUCUACAGUCCGACGAUC-3′and 5′-UCGUAUGCCGUC UUCUGCUUG-3′). Reverse transcription and PCR amplification were performed after ligation. The resulting products were sequenced on the Genome Analyzer GA-I (Illumina, San Diego, CA) according to the manufacturer’s recommended protocol.
Small RNA sequence analysis
Illumina's Genome Analyzer Pipeline software and the ACGT V3.1 program developed by LC Sciences (Houston, TX) were used for small RNA sequence analysis. The following sequences were removed: (1) sequences of the vector and adaptor, (2) low-quality sequences, (3) low-copy sequences (counts < 3), (4) sequences containing more than 80% A, C, G, or T, (5) sequences containing only A and C or only G and T, (6) sequences shorter than 16 nt and longer than 26 nt, (7) sequences containing 10 repeats of any dimer, 6 repeats of any trimer, or 5 repeats of any tetramer, (8) sequences matching mRNAs, rRNA, tRNA, snRNA, snoRNA. After these sequences were removed, all the remaining high-quality sequences were used for miRNA identification. To identify conserved miRNAs that were homologous with those of other species, all high-quality sequences were mapped to known mature and precursor arthropod miRNAs in miRBase 15.0 with an E-value similarity cutoff of 1e-10, and the pre-miRNAs were further mapped to the ESTs of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from GenBank owing to the lack of the Marsupenaeus japonicus genome. To characterize novel miRNA candidates in shrimp, the remaining high-quality sequences with no homologs in miRBase 15.0 were analyzed by a BLASTN search against the shrimp EST database in the National Center for Biotechnology Information , allowing one or two mismatches between each pair of sequences. Hairpin RNA structures were predicted from the 65 nt sequences adjacent to the mapped ESTs in either direction by the MFOLD program using default parameters .
Total RNA was extracted from the lymphoid organs of the virus-free and WSSV-infected shrimp at different times post-infection (0, 6, 24 and 48 h) and quantified using a spectrophotometer (NanoDrop, Wilmington, USA). Then, 30 μg of total RNA was separated on a denaturing 15% polyacrylamide gel containing 8 M urea. The RNA was transferred to Hybond-N + membranes (Amersham Biosciences, Buckinghamshire, UK). After ultraviolet crosslinking (120 mJ, 30 s), the membrane was pre-hybridized in DIG Easy Hyb granules buffer (Roche, Basel, Switzerland) for 0.5 h, and this was followed by hybridization with a DIG-labeled DNA probe complementary to a specific miRNA sequence for 20 h. The DIG labeling and detection were performed following the manual of DIG High Prime DNA Labeling and Detection Starter Kit II (Roche).
Shrimp EST assembly and 3' UTR extraction
Because of the lack of a shrimp genome sequence, the EST database containing 162,926 EST reads of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from GenBank was used for the prediction of miRNA target genes . However, most of the EST reads were too short (≤ 500 bp) to include information on 3' UTR sequences, which were the regions usually targeted by miRNAs. Therefore, the EST sequences were assembled using the CAP3 assembly program into a total of 31,831 non-redundant sequences comprising contigs and singlets [49, 50]. According to the highest BLASTX and/or BLASTN hits, the most likely open reading frames were annotated, and their corresponding 3' UTRs were determined through to the polyadenylation signal. A poly(A) signal was taken as a sequence of ATTAAA or AATAAA located 10–35 nt from either the poly(A) tail or the end of the sequence. A poly(A) tail was taken as a run of at least six As at the end of a sequence. Incomplete 3' UTRs were removed from further analysis. To characterize the interactions between the host miRNAs and WSSV genes, a total of 232 3' UTRs from the WSSV genome sequence [GenBank: NC_003225] were extracted as described above.
Prediction of genes targeted by miRNAs
To predict the genes targeted by miRNAs, two computational target prediction algorithms, TargetScan 5.1 and miRanda, were used [51, 52]. The data-sets used were the assembled EST sequences and the 3' UTRs of WSSV. TargetScan was used to search for miRNA seed matches (nucleotides 2–8 from the 5' end of miRNA) in the 3' UTR sequences. miRanda was used to match the entire miRNA sequences. The miRanda parameters were set as free energy < −20 kcal/mol and score > 50. Finally, the results predicted by the two algorithms were combined and the overlaps were calculated.
Gene ontology (GO) analysis
The coding sequences of the shrimp ESTs were extracted and used as queries to search the protein sequences collected by the GO database with the blast E value <1e-5 . The best hit GO IDs were assigned to the shrimp EST sequences. The hypergeometric test statistic was then used to obtain the over-representation of particular functions or categories in the data of miRNA targets predicted by TargetScan 5.1 as compared with all the EST data. The P values were corrected by false discovery rate (FDR).
White spot syndrome virus
Expressed sequence tag
The National Center for Biotechnology Information
False discovery rate
Serine/threonine p21-activated kinase
Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3
Hepatitis C virus
Human immunodeficiency virus-1
Mitogen-activated protein kinases
RNA integrity number
Hours post infection.
This work was financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (30830084) and Hi-Tech Research and Development Program of China (863 program of China) (2010AA09Z403, 2011AA10A216).
- Carrington JC, Ambros V: Role of microRNAs in plant and animal development. Science. 2003, 301: 336-338. 10.1126/science.1085242.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bernstein E, Caudy AA, Hammond SM, Hannon GJ: Role for a bidentate ribonuclease in the initiation step of RNA interference. Nature. 2001, 409: 363-366. 10.1038/35053110.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bartel DP: MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function. Cell. 2004, 116: 281-297. 10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00045-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meister G, Tuschl T: Mechanisms of gene silencing by double-stranded RNA. Nature. 2004, 431: 343-349. 10.1038/nature02873.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schwarz DS, Hutvagner G, Du T, Xu Z, Aronin N, Zamore PD: Asymmetry in the assembly of the RNAi enzyme complex. Cell. 2003, 115: 199-208. 10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00759-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bagga S, Bracht J, Hunter S, Massirer K, Holtz J, Eachus R, Pasquinelli AE: Regulation by let-7 and lin-4 miRNAs results in target mRNA degradation. Cell. 2005, 122: 553-563. 10.1016/j.cell.2005.07.031.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baek D, Villén J, Shin C, Camargo FD, Gygi SP, Bartel DP: The impact of microRNAs on protein output. Nature. 2008, 455: 64-71. 10.1038/nature07242.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lim LP, Lau NC, Garrett-Engele P, Grimson A, Schelter JM, Castle J, Bartel DP, Linsley PS, Johnson JM: Microarray analysis shows that some microRNAs downregulate large numbers of target mRNAs. Nature. 2005, 433: 769-773. 10.1038/nature03315.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ambros V: The functions of animal microRNAs. Nature. 2004, 431: 350-355. 10.1038/nature02871.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Teleman AA, Maitra S, Cohen SM: Drosophila lacking microRNA miR- 278 are defective in energy homeostasis. Genes Dev. 2006, 20: 417-422. 10.1101/gad.374406.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pedersen IM, Cheng G, Wieland S, Volinia S, Croce CM, Chisari FV, David M: Interferon modulation of cellular microRNAs as an antiviral mechanism. Nature. 2007, 499: 919-922.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang J, Wang F, Argyris E, Chen K, Liang Z, Tian H, Huang W, Squires K, Verlinghieri G, Zhang H: Cellular micro-RNAs contribute to HIV-1 latency in resting primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. Nat Med. 2007, 13: 1241-1247. 10.1038/nm1639.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lecellier CH, Dunoyer P, Arar K, Lehmann-Che J, Eyquem S, Himber C, Saib A, Voinnet O: A cellular microRNA mediates antiviral defense in human cells. Science. 2005, 308: 557-560. 10.1126/science.1108784.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Umbach JL, Cullen BR: The role of RNAi and microRNAs in animal virus replication and antiviral immunity. Genes Dev. 2009, 23: 1151-1164. 10.1101/gad.1793309.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Triboulet R, Mari B, Lin YL, Chable-Bessia C, Bennasser Y, Lebrigand K, Cardinaud B, Maurin T, Barbry P, Baillat V, Reynes J, Corbeau P, Jeang KT, Benkirane M: Suppression of microRNA-silencing pathway by HIV-1 during virus replication. Science. 2007, 315: 1579-1582. 10.1126/science.1136319.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang FZ, Weber F, Croce C, Liu CG, Liao X, Pellett PE: Human cytomegalovirus infection alters the expression of cellular microRNA species that affect its replication. J Virol. 2008, 82: 9065-9074. 10.1128/JVI.00961-08.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fullaondo A, Lee SY: Regulation of Drosophila-virus interaction. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012, 36: 262-266. 10.1016/j.dci.2011.08.007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee RC, Feinbaum RL, Ambros V: The C. elegans heterochronic gene lin-4 encodes small RNAs with antisense complementarity to lin-14. Cell. 1993, 75: 843-854. 10.1016/0092-8674(93)90529-Y.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reinhart BJ, Slack FJ, Basson M, Pasquinelli AE, Bettinger JC, Rougvie AE, Horvitz HR, Ruvkun G: The 21-nucleotide let-7 RNA regulates developmental timing in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature. 2000, 403: 901-906. 10.1038/35002607.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock RJ, van Dongen S, Bateman A, Enright AJ: miRBase: microRNA sequences, targets and gene nomenclature. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006, 34: D140-144. 10.1093/nar/gkj112.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grosshans H, Slack FJ: Micro-RNAs: small is plentiful. J Cell Biol. 2002, 156: 17-21. 10.1083/jcb.200111033.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bartel DP: MicroRNAs: target recognition and regulatory functions. Cell. 2009, 136: 215-233. 10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.002.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lim LP, Lau NC, Weinstein EG, Abdelhakim A, Yekta S, Rhoades MW, Burge CB, Bartel DP: The microRNAs of Caenorhabditis elegans. Genes Dev. 2003, 17: 991-1008. 10.1101/gad.1074403.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lewis BP, Burge CB, Bartel DP: Conserved seed pairing, often flanked by adenosines, indicates that thousands of human genes are microRNA targets. Cell. 2005, 120: 15-20. 10.1016/j.cell.2004.12.035.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Enright AJ, John B, Gaul U, Tuschl T, Sander C, Marks DS: MicroRNA targets in Drosophila. Genome Biol. 2003, 5 (1): R1-10.1186/gb-2003-5-1-r1.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang X, Zhang J, Li F, Gu J, He T, Zhang X, Li Y: MicroRNA identification based on sequence and structure alignment. Bioinformatics. 2005, 21: 3610-3614. 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti562.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grad Y, Aach J, Hayes GD, Reinhart BJ, Church GM, Ruvkun G, Kim J: Computational and experimental identification of C. elegans microRNAs. Mol Cell. 2003, 11: 1253-1263. 10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00153-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ambros V, Lee RC: Identification of microRNAs and other tiny noncoding RNAs by cDNA cloning. Methods Mol Biol. 2004, 265: 131-158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen PY, Manninga H, Slanchev K, Chien M, Russo JJ, Ju J, Sheridan R, John B, Marks DS, Gaidatzis D, Sander C, Zavolan M, Tuschl T: The developmental miRNA profiles of zebrafish as determined by small RNA cloning. Genes Dev. 2005, 19: 1288-1293. 10.1101/gad.1310605.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schafer A, Cai X, Bilello JP, Desrosiers RC, Cullen BR: Cloning and analysis of microRNAs encoded by the primate gamma-herpesvirus rhesus monkey rhadinovirus. Virology. 2007, 364: 21-27. 10.1016/j.virol.2007.03.029.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schreiber AW, Shi BJ, Huang CY, Langridge P, Baumann U: Discovery of barley miRNAs through deep sequencing of short reads. BMC Genomics. 2011, 12: 129-10.1186/1471-2164-12-129.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chang PS, Chen HC, Wand YC: Detection of white spot syndrome associated baculovirus WSBV in experimentally infected wild shrimps crabs and lobsters by in situ hybridization. Aquaculture. 1998, 164: 23-43. 10.1016/S0044-8486(98)00175-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Han F, Xu J, Zhang X: Characterization of an early gene (wsv477) from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Virus Genes. 2007, 34 (2): 193-198. 10.1007/s11262-006-0053-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aderem A, Underhill DM: Mechanisms of phagocytosis in macrophages. Annu Rev Immunol. 1999, 17: 593-623. 10.1146/annurev.immunol.17.1.593.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klionsky DJ, Emr SD: Autophagy as a regulated pathway of cellular degradation. Science. 2000, 290: 1717-1721.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Di Bartolo DL, Cannon M, Liu YF, Renne R, Chadburn A, Boshoff C, Cesarman E: KSHV LANA inhibits TGF-b signaling through epigenetic silencing of the TGF-b type II receptor. Blood. 2008, 111: 4731-4740. 10.1182/blood-2007-09-110544.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Varnholt H, Drebber U, Schulze F, Wedemeyer I, Schirmacher P, Dienes HP, Odenthal M: MicroRNA gene expression profile of hepatitis C virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2008, 47: 1223-1232.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Houzet L, Yeung ML, de Lame V, Desai D, Smith SM, Jeang KT: MicroRNA profile changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositive individuals. Retrovirology. 2008, 5: 118-10.1186/1742-4690-5-118.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cameron JE, Fewell C, Yin Q, McBride J, Wang X, Lin Z, Flemington EK: Epstein-Barr virus growth/latency III program alters cellular microRNA expression. Virology. 2008, 382 (2): 257-266. 10.1016/j.virol.2008.09.018.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Matskevich AA, Moelling K: Dicer is involved in protection against influenza A virus infection. J Gen Virol. 2007, 88: 2627-2635. 10.1099/vir.0.83103-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang X, Ye L, Hou W, Zhou Y, Wang YJ, Metzger DS, Ho WZ: Cellular microRNA expression correlates with susceptibility of monocytes/macrophages to HIV-1 infection. Blood. 2009, 113: 671-674. 10.1182/blood-2008-09-175000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jopling CL, Yi MK, Lancaster AM, Lemon SM, Sarnow P: Modulation of hepatitis C virus RNA abundance by a liver-specific micro- RNA. Science. 2005, 309: 1577-1581. 10.1126/science.1113329.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hayashi J, Aoki H, Kajino K, Moriyama M, Arakawa Y, Hino O: Hepatitis C virus core protein activates the MAPK/ERK cascade synergistically with tumor promoter TPA, but not with epidermal growth factor or transforming growth factor alpha. Hepatology. 2000, 32 (5): 958-961. 10.1053/jhep.2000.19343.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Andrade AA, Silva PN, Pereira AC, De Sousa LP, Ferreira PC, Gazzinelli RT, Kroon EG, Ropert C, Bonjardim CA: The vaccinia virus-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is required for virus multiplication. Biochem J. 2004, 15; 381 (Pt 2): 437-446.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Barber SA, Bruett L, Douglass BR, Herbst DS, Zink MC, Clements JE: Visna virus-induced activation of MAPK is required for virus replication and correlates with virus-induced neuropathology. J Virol. 2002, 76 (2): 817-828. 10.1128/JVI.76.2.817-828.2002.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wu WL, Wang L, Zhang XB: Identification of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope proteins involved in shrimp infection. Virology. 2005, 332: 578-583. 10.1016/j.virol.2004.12.011.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- NCBI: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/]
- MFOLD program (version 2.38): [http://mfold.rna.albany.edu/?q=mfold/RNA-Folding-Form]
- CAP3 Sequence Assembly Program: [http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/cap3.php]
- Huang X, Madan A: CAP3: A DNA sequence assembly program. Genome Res. 1999, 9 (9): 868-877. 10.1101/gr.9.9.868.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- TargetScan 5.1: [http://www.targetscan.org]
- miRanda: [http://www.microrna.org/]
- Gene Ontology database: [http://www.geneontology.org]
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.