Transcriptome sequencing for SNP discovery across Cucumis melo
© Blanca et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 10 February 2012
Accepted: 14 June 2012
Published: 24 June 2012
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a highly diverse species that is cultivated worldwide. Recent advances in massively parallel sequencing have begun to allow the study of nucleotide diversity in this species. The Sanger method combined with medium-throughput 454 technology were used in a previous study to analyze the genetic diversity of germplasm representing 3 botanical varieties, yielding a collection of about 40,000 SNPs distributed in 14,000 unigenes. However, the usefulness of this resource is limited as the sequenced genotypes do not represent the whole diversity of the species, which is divided into two subspecies with many botanical varieties variable in plant, flowering, and fruit traits, as well as in stress response. As a first step to extensively document levels and patterns of nucleotide variability across the species, we used the high-throughput SOLiD™ system to resequence the transcriptomes of a set of 67 genotypes that had previously been selected from a core collection representing the extant variation of the entire species.
The deep transcriptome resequencing of all of the genotypes, grouped into 8 pools (wild African agrestis, Asian agrestis and acidulus, exotic Far Eastern conomon, Indian momordica and Asian dudaim and flexuosus, commercial cantalupensis, subsp. melo Asian and European landraces, Spanish inodorus landraces, and Piel de Sapo breeding lines) yielded about 300 M reads. Short reads were mapped to the recently generated draft genome assembly of the DHL line Piel de Sapo (inodorus) x Songwhan Charmi (conomon) and to a new version of melon transcriptome. Regions with at least 6X coverage were used in SNV calling, generating a melon collection with 303,883 variants. These SNVs were dispersed across the entire C. melo genome, and distributed in 15,064 annotated genes. The number and variability of in silico SNVs differed considerably between pools. Our finding of higher genomic diversity in wild and exotic agrestis melons from India and Africa as compared to commercial cultivars, cultigens and landraces from Eastern Europe, Western Asia and the Mediterranean basin is consistent with the evolutionary history proposed for the species. Group-specific SNVs that will be useful in introgression programs were also detected. In a sample of 143 selected putative SNPs, we verified 93% of the polymorphisms in a panel of 78 genotypes.
This study provides the first comprehensive resequencing data for wild, exotic, and cultivated (landraces and commercial) melon transcriptomes, yielding the largest melon SNP collection available to date and representing a notable sample of the species diversity. This data provides a valuable resource for creating a catalog of allelic variants of melon genes and it will aid in future in-depth studies of population genetics, marker-assisted breeding, and gene identification aimed at developing improved varieties.
Melon (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is an important fruit crop worldwide. It is considered to be the most variable species in the genus Cucumis, and one of the most diverse among the cultivated vegetables[1, 2]. Being most likely of African or Asian origin, melon is thought to have been first domesticated because of its nutritional seeds, with further selection having resulted in increased fruit and seed size. Melon has suffered an intense process of diversification and today exhibits a large variation in plant, flowering and fruit traits. Currently, the species comprises wild, feral and cultivated varieties, including sweet melons used for dessert and non-sweet ones consumed raw, pickled or cooked. Wild melons are still frequent in East and West Africa, as well as from Central Asia to India. The main centers of diversity of melon are located between the Mediterranean basin (ranging from Southern and Eastern Europe to Turkey) and Central Asia (Iraq, Iran, Uzbekistan), and from India to the East Asian countries of China, Korea and Japan.
Traditionally, C. melo has been considered to be divided into two subspecies, melo and agrestis. One of the simplest and most accepted classifications describes one single wild variety, var. agrestis Naud., and six cultivar groups (cantalupensis Naud., cantaloupe or muskmelon, inodorus Naud., cassaba and winter melons, flexuosus Naud., snake melons, dudaim Naud., mango melons, momordica, phoot or snap melons, and conomon Mak., pickling melon)[5, 7]. More recently Pitrat et al. split these varieties into 15 botanical groups (cantalupensis, reticulatus, adana, chandalak, ameri, inodorus, chate, flexuosus, dudaim and tibish (subsp. melo), momordica, conomon, chinensis, makuwa, and acidulus (subsp. agrestis)). However, some of these botanical groups are not well defined, share characteristics and are quite heterogeneous. Despite many reported accessions accurately fit into one of these distinctive taxonomic groups, other accessions displaying intermediated or mixed features are difficult to classify. Cantalupensis and inodorus are the botanical groups of greatest commercial interest. Both include different cultivar-types that are highly popular in different parts of the world.
Different marker systems have been used to assess the genetic diversity in melon by studying the genetic relationships among the different botanical groups (RFLPs, RAPDs, AFLPs, ISSRs and SSRs) (reviewed in Esteras et al.). Most of the molecular studies strongly support the sub-specific division[9–11], reclassifying some of the botanical groups (the variety tibish has been included in the subspecies agrestis) and detecting a higher diversity among the agrestis types. In general, higher genetic diversity is reported in Africa and India than in the extremes of the distribution of melon (Mediterranean area and eastern Asia), which is consistent with the higher variation being maintained close to the center of domestication. The variability found in some groups of the subspecies agrestis (mostly conomon and momordica) has been used as a source of disease resistance for cantalupensis and inodorus cultivars and is also an underexploited reservoir of genetic variability for improving fruit quality in melon cultivars.
To date, the genetic basis of this diversity and the consequences of selection on genetic variation in the different wild and cultivated groups have not yet been studied on a genome-wide basis. The genomic abundance and amenability to cost-effective high throughput genotyping make single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs, the most-used markers for genome-wide surveys of genetic diversity. Large SNPs collections have been identified in humans, several animals, and various model plants[12–19].
The availability of SNPs collections for melon has increased in the past few years with the sequences produced by several national and international projects using the Sanger technology[20–22]. Several thousand of SNPs were identified and some were mapped[10, 23].
Second-generation sequencing (SGS) platforms, such as 454 GS FLX (Roche Applied Science), Solexa (Illumina Inc), and SOLiD (Life Technologies Inc), offer higher sequencing throughputs at greatly reduced costs. SGS platforms (mostly 454 and Solexa) are being used to resequence a number of genotypes in different crops (maize, rice, sorghum, soybean, common bean, brassicas, pumpkin, etc.), and are successfully generating vast amounts of SNPs. SGS is often combined with approaches to reduce genome complexity (genomic reduced representation libraries, transcriptome resequencing, etc.)[24, 25]. SGS provides a reduced read length and lower per-base accuracy than data from Sanger sequencing. However, the 2-base encoding system used in the ligation-base sequencing protocol SOLiD TM enables a reduction of the sequencing error rate. This reduction translates into more accurate polymorphism discovery.
Blanca et al. used SGS reads in melons for the first time to generate the latest and most complete version of the melon transcriptome, combining the previously available Sanger ESTs and the new sequences produced with the 454 platform (available at the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) with code SRA050214.1). A new and improved assembly of all these public ESTs (both Sanger and 454) is now available at the melogene database generated at the COMAV (http://melogene.net).
In the study by Blanca et al., the 454 platform allowed the deep transcriptome resequencing of a set of melon genotypes that were aligned to the reference transcriptome, yielding a large SNP collection in the species (a total of 38,587 SNPs). The genotypes included in this SGS-based SNP discovery assay represented the two most important melon market classes, the inodorus ‘Piel de Sapo’ and the cantalupensis “Charentais”, as well as the exotic conomon variety, which is mostly used for breeding. These markers are turning out to be extremely useful in the genetic diversity assays and breeding programs that use these varieties. This collection has been already used to construct a high-density genetic map employed to anchor and orient scaffolds in the melon whole genome sequence. However, only 1 or 2 genotypes of each group were included, and therefore the within-group variability was not well represented. In addition, the other groups of the species were not represented in this first SGS sequencing assay.
To obtain a comprehensive overview of the sequence variation of melon genes, we have used SOLiD to resequence the transcriptome of 67 genotypes, grouped into 8 pools that represent all the botanical groups of the species. The completion of a draft of the genome sequence of melon gives us the opportunity to mine SNVs on a genomic scale by using the reference genome for the alignment of short reads obtained by resequencing the variability across the species.
The diversity in African and Asian wild agrestis and exotic acidulus is analyzed here for the first time. Within the subsp. melo, we extended the study to better represent the variability of the cantalupensis group, the Spanish inodorus landraces, the Piel de Sapo commercial breeding lines, and also included the variability of melons from Eastern Europe and Western Asia that have not been represented in previous studies. Also, the intermediate group of flexuosus, dudaim and momordica, reservoir of resistance and quality genes for improving cultivated melons, has been analyzed. With this deep resequencing we captured a high number of SNVs between groups and detected some group-specific common variants. This new resource provides a unique opportunity to explore the genetic variation of melon and to identify sequence variants associated with phenotypes of interest.
We used a core collection of 212 melon accessions, including wild relatives, feral types, landraces, breeding lines and commercial cultivars from 54 countries (representing the putative origin areas and diversity centers of the species). This collection was established on the framework of a previous project (MELRIP (2007–2010): ERA-PG project (GEN2006-27773-C2-2-E)), selfed, genotyped with AFLP markers and extensively phenotyped for plant and fruit traits at the COMAV. Fifty two genotypes representing the variability of the species were selected on the basis of their molecular and phenotypic data. In this previous analysis we found a few discrepancies between the phenotype and the molecular results. Some accessions showing morphological features of a specific taxonomic group were molecularly similar to accessions of a different botanic group. Some others had intermediate features, reflecting the difficulties that sometimes arise during melon classification. In this paper, we employed for each accession the taxonomic group into which it was classified according to its phenotype, but the pooling strategy was decided combining phenotypic and previous AFLP results.
Origin and characteristics of genotypes included in the 8 pools sequenced with SOLiD
Flower and fruit traits
% Mapped reads
Number of processed reads a1
Pool 1: African agrestis
Mostly monoecious. Mostly small inedible fruits (<5 cm). Round to oval. Light green-white flesh. Non climacteric. No aroma. No sugar.
Pool 2: Asian agrestis- acidulus
Agrestis Wild chibbar/CO204
Monoecious. Small to medium sized fruits. Oval, elliptic to elongated. Mostly non climacteric. White-light orange flesh. No aroma. No sugar. Low pH.
Acidulus TGR 1551/PI 482420
Pool 3: Far East conomon
Andromonoecious-hermaphroditic. Medium sized fruits. Flat, round to elongated. White-green-light orange flesh. Non climacteric-medium climacteric. Medium aroma. Medium sugar.
Songwhan Charmi/PI 161375
Intermediate types between subspecies
Pool 4: Middle East and Indian momordica, dudaim and flexuosus
Andromonoecious-monoecious. Round, flat, oval to very elongated fruits. White-light orange flesh. Climacteric. No to intermediate sugar. Medium to strong aroma. Low pH.
Dudaim QueenÂ´s pocket melon/CO180
Pool 5: Group cantalupensis
Andromonoecious-monoecious- gynoecious. Medium to large size fruits. Flat to oval. Round or ribbed. Green- orange flesh. Climacteric. Sweet. Aromatic.
Noir des carmes/CO161
Prescott Fond Blanc/CO179
5 Charentais breeding lines
Pool 6: Group melo Eastern Europe, Central Asia, inodorus, chandalack, ameri
Monoecious-andromonoecious. Medium-size fruits. Oval, flat to elongated. White-green-light orange flesh. Climacteric. Sweet, variable sugar content. Medium to low aroma.
Pool 7: inodorus Spanish landraces
Andromonoecious. Large-sized fruits. Round to elliptic. White-Green flesh. Non climacteric. Sweet. Low aroma.
Largo de Villaconejos/CO69
5 Amarillo breeding lines
Pool 8: inodorus group market class Piel de sapo
Andromonoecious. Large-sized fruits. Round to elliptic. White-green flesh. Non climacteric. Sweet. No aroma.
5 Piel de Sapo breeding lines
We prepared 8 pooled RNA samples. Three pools represented the variability of the subsp. agrestis (Table1): the first RNA sample was prepared from 5 African genotypes, most belonging to the variety agrestis which is characterized by its small, inedible, non-climacteric fruits (<5 cm) (Additional file1), with no sugar and no aroma, as well as another genotype belonging to the newly reported African variety tibish; the second sample consisted of RNA from 6 genotypes, mostly Asian, of the agrestis and acidulus varieties, with traits similar to the first pool, but with medium-sized acidic fruits. The accessions included in this pool grouped in the previous AFLP analysis. Varieties of the acidulus group are currently grown as vegetables in India; the third group included 5 genotypes of the exotic Far-East Asian variety, conomon, one of the most common source of resistances for cultivated melons, which is characterized by medium-sized, climacteric or non climacteric fruits, with variable fruit quality traits. This group includes typical var. conomon as well as others belonging to the varieties chinensis and makuwa. Varieties of these groups are still widely cultivated as vegetables in rural areas of China. The conomon group was represented by 2 genotypes in the previous Sanger and 454 massive sequencing assay, and includes the accession Songwhan Charmi, one of the parental lines of the melon genetic map and of the DHL used for whole genome sequencing[28, 31]. The fourth RNA pool included 7 representatives of three varieties that have been previously classified in the subsp. melo (dudaim and flexuosus) and agrestis (momordica), but are often considered intermediate between the two subspecies based on molecular studies[9, 11, 32]. This group includes cultivated snake melons consumed immature as cucumbers in southern Europe, northern Africa, and the Middle East, one known oriental cultivar of mango melon used as an ornamental, and snap melon cultigens grown in India.
The remaining four pools represented the variability of the cultivated types of subsp. melo (Table1): the fifth group included 8 cantalupensis commercial varieties and 5 cantalupensis breeding lines belonging to the Charentais market class from Semillas Fitó. This group comprises the botanical varieties cantalupensis and reticulatus, which include many economically important cultivars from Europe, Asia and America. Previous Sanger and 454 sequencing assays included 3 representatives of this group; the sixth RNA pool was formed by 11 melon cultivars representing other melon varieties, i. e. adana, chandalak, and ameri, most of which show intermediate characteristics between the two main economically important groups, cantalupensis and inodorus, and several inodorus cultivars from Eastern Europe and Western and Central Asia; the seventh group was prepared from 15 Spanish cultivars of the inodorus group, including many market classes that are popular in Eastern and Southern Europe and Brazil (i.e., ‘Amarillo’, ‘Rochet’, and ‘Tendral’), as well as other less know types representing the variability of the Spanish melon landraces; the most important inodorus market class, Piel de Sapo, was resequenced in a separate group, which included the cultivar T111 and 5 additional breeding lines provided by Semillas Fitó. The cultivar T111 was included in the previous massive sequencing assay, and is the parental of the genetic map of melon.
cDNA preparation and sequencing
Total RNA was isolated from leaf tissue using the Trizol method in the 67 selected genotypes and stored at −80°C until library construction. Equivalent amounts of RNA from each genotype were combined into eight pools. mRNA was purified from the total RNA using the illustraTM mRNA Purification Kit (GE Healthcare, Amersham Bioscience). Quantification and quality analysis was performed by agarose electrophoresis and by using Spectrophotometer NanoDrop ND-1000 v 3.5.
Double-stranded cDNA was then synthesized from the RNA pools with the SMART TM PCR cDNA Synthesis Kit (Clontech). cDNA PCR products were purified using the RocheÂ´s High Pure PCR Cleanup MicroKit and a subsequent precipitation with sodium acetate. Another quantification step using electrophoresis and spectophotometry was also carried out. A normalization step was carried out with the TRIMMER cDNA normalization Kit (Evrogen) in order to prevent over-representation of the most common transcripts. cDNA was amplified with the Advantage 2 PCR Kit (Clontech) in order to obtain the required quantity. The performance of the normalization step was checked by quantitative PCR with FastStart Universal SYBR Green Master (ROX) (Roche). Samples to be sequenced were lyophilized after purification and precipitation. Approximately 10 μg of double-stranded cDNA from each of the eight normalized cDNA pools were used for sequencing on a SOLiD v4 following standard procedures.
The Applied Biosystems SOLiD™ System uses the sequence-by-ligation technique to generate several gigabases of short sequence reads in a single run. Error rates are higher in comparison to those of Sanger sequencing reads, but the sequence-by-ligation technique takes advantage of a two-base encoding scheme to help identify these errors. Templated beads were prepared from each of the eight transcriptome libraries according to the manufacturer's instructions using the ePCR kit v.2 and the Bead Enrichment Kit from Applied Biosystems (Life Technologies, Inc.) for SOLiD3. Workflow Analysis was done after the first round of template bead preparation for each library according to the manufacturer's instructions using the Workflow Analysis kit from Applied Biosystems (Life Technologies, Inc.) to check library quality and the amount of templated beads generated per ePCR. An additional Workflow Analysis was done after it was estimated that a sufficient number of templated beads has been produced. Templated beads were deposited on slides according to the manufacturerÂ´s instructions using the Bead Deposition kit from Applied Biosystems (Life Technologies, Inc.). A 1/8 sequencing run was performed for each pooled transcriptome library (Sistemas Genomicos S.L).
Read processing, mapping and SNV mining
Raw reads generated with SOLiD were processed using the ngs_backbone pipeline[33, 34] with the configuration file included as Additional file2 “ngs_backbone configuration”. Reads were cleaned by following the quality standards for SOLiD reads proposed by Sasson and Michael. The sequences with more than two missing calls or with a mean quality lower than 15 in the first 10 bases were removed. The 3Â´ regions with a mean quality lower than 20 were trimmed to improve the mapping and the reads with a length below 30 were also dropped. A first draft of the entire melon genome sequence was recently developed under the framework of the MELONOMICS project (2009–2012) of the Fundación Genoma España. This sequence was generated from the double haploid line DHL92 derived from the cross between Piel de Sapo T111 and the conomon variety Songwhan Charmi.
In order to make the best use of the short sequence reads for SNVs (Single variants: short INDELs and SNPs) discovery, processed SOLiD reads were aligned to this available melon genome assembly (v3.5). Alternatively the SNPs were also referred to the transcriptome available athttp://melonge.net build with the reads described in Blanca et al.. The method used to do this transcriptome based SNV calling was exactly the same as the described for the genome.
Reads were mapped using BWA run with its default parameters. Other mappers capable of dealing with the splice junctions were assessed like TopHat. TopHat failed to create valid SOLiD mapping with the version available at the time. Several sets of BWA parameters were tested and found to map more reads, but they were dismissed because they were less stringent than the default ones. The SNVs were called with ngs_backbone. Stringent criteria for the SNV calling were used, and only those regions with at least 6X coverage were mined for SNVs. The SNVs were required to have a quality of 70 and at least 3 reads per allele. The obtained SNVs were filtered to select those that were variable within and among groups and to facilitate its use in high-throughput genotyping platforms. The configuration of the filters can be also found in the nsg_backbone configuration file included in Additional file2.
Results and discussion
Sequence generation, processing and mapping
The 8 pooled libraries were sequenced separately in one SOLiD run, generating a total of 260 million (M) reads of 49-bp (12.737 Gb of sequence). These reads were deposited in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) with code SRA050003.2. An average of 32 M reads was generated per library. After cleaning with ngs_backbone, a total of 150 M reads were obtained with an average length of 44 bp, comprising 6.654 Gb. The total yield of sequences per pool was variable, ranging from 8.4 to 30.6 M, with the melos (pool 6) and African agrestis (pool 1) groups retaining the lowest and the highest numbers of useful sequences, respectively. Pool 6 was the one with the lowest sequencing quality. Changes in read number and average quality after read cleaning are detailed in Additional file3: “Changes in number and quality of reads after processing with ngs_backbone”.
The cleaned reads were mapped by BWA. About 50% of the reads, a total of 73 M (Table1), could be mapped against the reference melon genome and used for SNV calling. The reference genome assembly consists of approximately 375 Mb arranged into 78 primary scaffolds, which represent 90% of the assembly, plus several thousand additional scaffolds and contigs. The melon genome assembly can be accessed from the MELONOMICS webpage. The cleaned reads were also mapped against the new version of the reference melon transcriptome of 49,741 unigenes available athttp://melogene.net.
SNP calling, number, and distribution
We identified a large number of genetic variants across the transcriptomes. A total of 303,883 SNVs, including SNPs and INDELs, were detected. Information about this SNVs collection is included in Additional file4: “SNVs detected by mapping SOLiD sequences against melon genome”. This number is at least 7 fold higher than that identified previously by the Sanger and 454 sequencing of 10 representatives of 3 botanical varieties (38,587 SNPs and 5,795 INDELs).
Information about the 239,521 SNVs identified by mapping SOLiD reads against the reference transcriptome instead of the genome is also included in Additional file5 “SNVs detected by mapping SOLiD sequences against melon transcriptome” and can be accessed inhttp://melogene.net.
SNVs were distributed in 245 different scaffolds and contigs of the reference genome. Most (283,206, 93%) were located in annotated genes. The list of SNVs located in annotated genes is included in Additional file6. “Location of SNVs in melon genes.”
The annotation of the newly assembled genome predicted 27,427 protein-coding genes, 15,064 of which contained variants, with an average of 18.8 SNVs per gene. 65.7% of the detected variants in genes were in CDS and the remainder in UTRs, with the UTRs displaying a higher SNV density, 14.9 SNVs/Kb, than in the ORF, 9.5/Kb.
The errors that occur in SNVs discovery when using massive sequencing technologies have several major causes: (1) PCR artifacts, (2) sequencing errors, and (3) errors in the mapping of short reads to the reference sequence. You et al., after comparing the 3 most popular SGS platforms, 454, Solexa, and SOLiD, found that INDEL errors accounted for most sequencing errors, mainly in 454 and SOLiD, with base substitution error rates being less frequent. The SOLiD platform exhibited the lowest base substitution error rate, likely reflecting the di-base encoding and color space scheme in this sequencing technology. Since INDELs are a significant source of false-positive variants, we filtered them out (filter VKS in Additional file4). To compare the variability of the different groups, all short INDELs were excluded, and only high-quality SNPs were retained.
A 93% (283,972) of the SNVs detected by mapping SOLiD reads against the melon genome were SNPs. 94% (266,130) were located in annotated genes of the melon genome, distributed in UTRs (28.4%) and ORFs (67.6%), with an average density of 13.3 SNPs/Kb versus 9.3 SNPs/Kb, respectively. Due to the mapping procedure used, we did not identify any SNPs in intron-exon junctions. Further analysis of these regions would increase the total number of SNPs in the collection.
This is the largest SNP collection available in C. melo to date. A collection of several thousand SNPs (about 3,000) was reported, generated from a much more limited collection of sequences obtained using traditional Sanger methods[20, 21]. Massive sequencing has only very recently been applied to melons, and has produced the first massive SNP collection, with a total of 38,587 SNPs, detected in the first combined transcriptome assembly with the Sanger and newly produced 454 sequences. This previous study used a range of melon genotypes (10) representing two cultivated varieties of the subspecies melo, var. inodorus (including the Piel de Sapo market class) and var. cantalupensis, and the conomon variety of the subspecies agrestis. Blanca et al. reported considerably lower SNP densities, from 0.2 to 1.5 SNPs/Kb. The two results are difficult to compare as the coverage and the number of varieties represented are higher in this study. However, we consider that the higher number of SNPs reported here is mainly due to the high number of materials included in the study, as the more diverse the materials sequenced the more variation is sampled. The SNP density found in this study is more similar to that reported after the resequencing of the transcriptomes of several genotypes in several other crops sequenced mostly by means of 454 and Solexa[13, 38, 39], but none of these marker sets come from such a large germplasm collection. Much larger SNPs collections, with several million SNPs, have been reported after the whole genome resequencing of several crop genotypes[19, 40, 41]. However, most of the reported SNPs are in non-genic regions, and the number and relative distribution in CDS and UTRs is comparable to the hundreds of thousands presented here.
SNPs identified in the eight pools of C. melo genotypes resequenced with SOLiD
Total N° SNPs2
N° SNPs with MAF < 0.7 (%)3
C. melo subespecies agrestis
1) African agrestis
2) Asian agrestis-acidulus
3) Far East conomon
4) Middle East and Indian momordica-dudaim-flexuosus
C. melo subespecies melo
5) Group cantalupensis
6) Group melo Europe-Asia inodorus-chandalak-ameri
7) inodorus Spanish landraces
8) inodorus group market class Piel de Sapo
SNP densities in the pools with accessions belonging to the subspecies agrestis were similar to those of the subspecies melo (ranging from 4.9 to 9.2 SNPs/Kb). However, the percentage of highly variable SNPs (with MAF under 0.7) was higher in agrestis pools including wild and exotic accessions from Africa and Southern Asia (pools 1 and 2) (Figure1). The level of molecular variability in these two pools was similar despite pool 2 was more heterogeneous (Table1, Additional file1). High variability in the agrestis and acidulus from these areas, which are putative centers of origin for melon, was previously reported[29, 42, 43]. Less variable were the conomon from the Far East (pool 3) even when the included accessions were quite phenotipically variable (Table1; Additional file1). In this group only 1.6% of the detected SNPs had MAF < 0.7, which is consistent with previous studies that found East Asian melons to be less variable than South Asian melons (especially those from India)[30, 44–46].
In our study, pool 4 also showed a large SNP density and a high percentage of highly variable SNPs (>10%) (Figure1, Table2), which is consistent with the higher taxonomic variability of this pool composed of momordica, dudaim and flexuosus genotypes from India and the Near and Middle East (Table1; Additional file1). The momordica group has been reported to show high levels of genetic diversity[47–49]. In addition, high levels of variability, leading to discrepancies in their taxonomic classification, have been reported for dudaim and flexuosus, as accessions of these groups are sometimes grouped with agrestis types or interspersed with sweet cultivated types of the subspecies melo[9, 11, 32]. These data agree with previous studies that indicate a higher molecular variability in Africa and Central and Southern Asia, than in the extremes of melon distribution (the Mediterranean area and the Far East) (reviewed in Esteras et al.).
The previously described pools, 1 to 4, mostly include non-sweet melons found growing wild or locally cultivated as exotic vegetables in different parts of the world. We present here for the first time a deep understanding of their genetic variation. This knowledge can be used to provide the basis not only for breeding commercial sweet melons (cantalupensis and inodorus), but also for promoting their own conservation and for starting commercial breeding activities for these exotic crops. In this sense, Fergany et al. and Kong et al. observe the need to develop new varieties with higher yields and improved nutritional value of acidulus and conomon melons, which are in high demand in India and China.
Unlike other crops for which a extremely narrow genetic basis is reported in cultivated material after resequencing, such as cereals, or tomato some of the sweet melon groups still retain significant levels of diversity. The cantalupensis group (pool 5) (which includes melons of several market classes, Charentais, Galia, etc.) was the most variable, with MAF values similar to those of the agrestis group (Figure1). All the sequenced cultivars are commercial cultivars subjected to breeding. The combination of genetic material from different groups by breeders or the introgressions of favorable traits from wild or exotic material during breeding programs may account for part of this variation. The other major commercial group (pool 8), which includes only the Piel de Sapo market class (the most economically important of the inodorus melons), was less variable, as expected. Despite this low variability, 3.2% (1,396) of the 43,363 SNPs detected in this group were highly informative with MAF < 0.7, and represent the largest set of SNPs detected for this group to date.
The cantalupensis and inodorus groups are thought to have originated from genotypes distributed in Eastern Europe and Western Asia. The current variability of landraces and local cultivars in this area, including Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Russia, Ukraine and surrounding countries has only started to be analyzed. Sensoy et al. found many intermediate forms between the inodorus and cantalupensis groups in Turkey due to the traditional farming practices employed by some local small-scale melon producers. Kohpayegani and Behbahani reported high variability in Iranian melon, comparable to that of Turkish melons and much higher than landraces from Europe. Nimmakayala et al. first reported high variability in the botanical varieties ameri, adana and chandalack from Ukraine, considered to be the ancestors of the cantalupensis group. Most of these groups of cultivars are represented in pool 6. Even though this highly heterogeneous group had the lowest percentage of mapped reads (Table1), most likely caused by a low sequence quality, it displayed a considerable number of highly variable SNPs.
Today the variation of the inodorus group is maintained in groups of landraces in different Mediterranean countries such as Greece and Italy[47, 55, 56]. The Iberian Peninsula is considered to be a secondary diversification center for melon and is a major world producer of inodorus cultivars. Several studies have analyzed the distinctive morphological characteristics of Spanish melon cultivars (texture and unique taste). Also a marked lack of gene introgression from other germplasm of diverse origin has been suggested using molecular markers[57, 58]. We detected a considerable SNP density, 6.4 SNPs/Kb, within the selected group of landraces (pool 7) (different types of Cassaba melons) indicating that high levels of variation are still present in this traditional Spanish germplasm.
Variation found in these groups of cultigens and landraces (pools 6 and 7) might prove useful for breeding commercial melons.
Variation among groups
Number of SNPs shared and differential between groups
Piel de Sapo
Piel de Sapo
Despite the high level of shared variation, all the groups retained a number of exclusive SNPs. For example, 111,226 and 80,278 SNPs that were variable within the momordica group were not detected in Piel de Sapo and the cantalupensis commercial cultivarsrespectively. Table3 shows the number of SNPs that differentiate pairs of libraries, i.e. nucleotide positions fixed within a given pool and different between pairs. The momordica group has thousands of fixed positions with different alleles in groups of subsp. melo (from 2,417 to 4,487), but this number is much higher in wild African (14,132 to 20,931) and even in Far Eastern conomon (12,628 to 20,218). These two groups were the most divergent from the subspecies melo. The largest differences were detected between inodorus and Piel de Sapo and the wild African agrestis group (over 20,501 SNPs). This suggests that a large portion of the genetic variability found within this melon collection has not yet been used for the development of new cultivars. Both, the African agrestis and conomon groups appear to represent essential reservoirs of underexploited variation. The large number of variants in which the two groups differ (21,490) suggests that they are rich complementary sources of genetic diversity for cultivated melons. The number of SNPs still present in the cultigens and landraces pools (6 and 7) that are absent from commercial cultivars (pools 5 and 8) are worthy of note as they may be useful for breeding melons using these sources that share similar genetic backgrounds.
Variation in target genes
In order to validate the efficiency of this in silico SNP mining, we compared our results to those previously obtained using EcoTILLING in the same germplasm collection. EcoTILLING was used to detect SNPs with an impact on gene function by screening the coding sequences of genes involved in fruit quality and disease resistance. The natural variation in two melon genes was analyzed: Cm-ACO1 (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase 1) which is involved in melon ripening through the alteration of ethylene synthesis, and Cm-eIF(iso)4E (melon eukaryotic translation initiation factor E, Isoform) which has been suggested to be involved in recessive resistance to viruses[61, 62]. In the previous study performed by Esteras et al. all mutations found by EcoTILLING were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and the effect of the mutations was analyzed with SIFT (Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant)[63, 64] which predicts whether an amino acid substitution affects protein function.
Polymorphism in Cm-ACO-1 and Cm-eiF4-iso detected by SOLiD sequencing and EcoTILLING
Position in the scaffold1
Position in the gene (from ATG)
Effect on protein according to SIFT2
Detected by SOLiD/EcoTILLING
Coding region of Cm-ACO-1, CM3.5_scaffold00022
Coding region of Cm-eiF(iso)4E, CM3.5_scaffold00057
EcoTILLING studies show that most natural variation in Cm-ACO-1 occurs in exon 1, 2 and 3. The only variant in exon 4 was detected by TILLING in an EMS-treated Piel de Sapo melon collection (C728T, T243I). SOLiD resequencing detected a putative natural missense mutation in exon 4, which was reported to be tolerated by SIFT (CM3.5_scaffold00022: 3016920). This was a rare allele (MAF = 0.97), only present in momordica and the two groups with commercial varieties, cantalupensis and Piel de Sapo. It has been demonstrated that two artificially induced missense mutations found in exon 3 (in a TILLING platform constructed in a cantalupensis genetic background) (C580T, L124Phe, and G791A, Gly194Asp) delay the ripening process resulting in fruit flesh with increased firmness. It remains to be demonstrated if any of the natural putative missense mutations found in this study affect ethylene production, thereby altering the ripening process.
Cm-eiF(iso)4E (unigene MELO3C023037 at) is located in CM3.5_scaffold00057: 1028066 to 1030714 (Figure3 B). We detected 8 mutations in the coding region of this gene (Table4). We previously screened the natural variation of this gene with EcoTILLING, analyzing exons 1, 2, and 3, and detecting only 2 of the 5 mutations identified by sequencing, both in exon 1 (CM3.5_scaffold00057: 1030561 and 1030440). Resequencing provided additional putative mutations in exons 2 and 3, one of which was non-tolerated. All were rare alleles that appeared in African agrestis accessions and in certain commercial varieties (CM3.5_scaffold00057: 1029938, 1029710, and 1029697). Exons 1, 2, and 3 of Cm-eIF(iso)4E were also tilled in the Piel de Sapo and Charentais TILLING populations described above. Only one mutation in exon 1, a transition G128A that alters aa 43 R to K, was found and predicted to be tolerated, so the number of natural variants was much higher than that obtained with induced variation.
In the re-sequencing assay we also analyzed exons 4 and 5, which have not been analyzed by EcoTILLING. We found 3 rare mutations in agrestis, momordica and commercial cultivars respectively, the last of which was predicted to alter protein function according to SIFT (CM3.5_scaffold00057: 1028781, 1028629, and 1028619).
Although it is necessary to validate by sequencing or genotyping these in silico- detected SNPs, our results confirm that resequencing strategy provides a large catalog of alleles in genes of interest, some of which may potentially alter gene function.
Only two of the mutations detected by EcoTILLING in the accessions used for resequencing were missed by SOLiD: one in the Cm-ACO-1 gene, mutation C/T in nucleotide 747 from the ATG, and the second in Cm-eIF(iso)4E, mutation G/A in nucleotide 26 from the ATG, both detected in the Wild chibbar accession of pool 2. Problems with the sequencing of the cDNA of this accession may explain these results.
Design of a genotyping array for validation
Number of SNPs meeting different criteria for optimizing validation with the sequenom genotyping array
Variable in all groups
SNPs variable within and between different groups of botanical varieties selected for validation
SNPs with MAF <0.7
Piel de Sapo (8) African agrestis (1)
Piel de Sapo (8) conomon (3)
African agrestis (1)
cantalupensis (5) conomon (3)
African agrestis (1)
momordica (4) Piel de Sapo (8) inodorus (7)
African agrestis (1)conomon (3)
momordica (4) cantalupensis (5)
African agrestis (1)conomon (3)
Polymorphic in Piel de Sapo
Polymorphic in all groups
The ratio of validation varied among SNPs groups. Nearly 100% of the SNPs selected for being common between Piel de sapo and African agrestis or conomon, and variable with conomon or African agrestis, respectively, were successfully validated (Table6, and Additional file7). Nearly all the SNPs selected for being common between cantalupensis and conomon and variable with African agrestis, and those selected for being common between momordica and inodorus-Piel de Sapo or cantalupensis and variable with conomon were also true SNPs. The percentage of validation was lower in the group of SNPs selected for being variable in all groups (81%), and the lower percentage of validation was found in the group variable within Piel de Sapo. However, the lower ratio of validation found in the latter group can be due to the fact that only 2 genotypes of this market class were included in the genotyping array due to technical problems.
Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) for every SNP validated was calculated by using Power Marker v. software (Additional file7). In general, results indicate a high percentage of validation and consistency of the results obtained by SOLiD with those of the genotyping array, suggesting that most of the in silico selected markers will be useful for different melon breeding objectives.
This study provides the first comprehensive resequencing data of wild, exotic, and cultivated melons. It demonstrates that pooling RNA samples from several genotypes combined with high-throughput transcriptome sequencing is an efficient and effective way to identify large numbers of SNPs. This collection of variants dramatically improves the previously available SNP collection by increasing the total number of useful SNPs and by identifying new ones in groups of melons from the area of origin and diversification analyzed here for the first time. Our results show the divergence between wild and cultivated melons. The huge amount of variation present in wild African agrestis and conomon, which is absent in the subspecies melo, may prove useful in breeding commercial types. The variation detected in landraces shows that these are also reservoirs of polymorphism for breeding melons with similar genetic backgrounds. The high percentage of validation confirms the utility of the SNP-mining process and the stringent quality criteria for distinguishing sequence variations from sequencing errors and mutations introduced during the cDNA synthesis step. The availability of this information will aid in carrying out future studies of population genetics, marker-assisted breeding, and QTL dissection. Some of the resequenced genotypes are donors of agronomic traits, with available mapping population’s with will enable the rapid application of the discovered SNPs in mapping experiments.
This project was carried out in the frame of the MELONOMICS project (2009–2012) of the Fundación Genoma España.
- Kirkbride JH: Biosystematic monograph of the genus Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae). 1993, Boone, NC, USA: Parkway PublGoogle Scholar
- Esteras C, Nuez F, Picó B: Genetic diversity studies in Cucurbits using molecular tools. Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Cucurbits. Edited by: Behera TK, Wang Y, Kole C. 2012, Enfield, New Hampshire: Science Publishers Inc, 140-198.Google Scholar
- Sebastian P, Schaefer H, Telford IR, Renner SS: Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and melon (C. melo) have numerous wild relatives in Asia and Australia, and the sister species of melon is from Australia. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2010, 107 (32): 14269-14273. 10.1073/pnas.1005338107.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fernández-Trujillo JP, Picó B, Garcia-Mas J, Alvarez JM, Monforte AJ: Breeding for fruit quality in melon. Breeding for Fruit Quality. Edited by: Jenks MA, Bebeli P. 2010, IA, USA: Wiley-Blackwell Ames, 12-Google Scholar
- Robinson RW, Decker-Walters DS:Cucurbits. In Crop Production Science in Horticulture. 1997, NY, USA: CABI Publishing,Google Scholar
- Jeffrey C: A review of the Cucurbitaceae. Bot J Linn Soc. 1980, 81: 233-247. 10.1111/j.1095-8339.1980.tb01676.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Munger HM, Robinson RW: Nomenclature of Cucumis melo L. Cucurbit Genet Coop Rep. 1991, 14: 43-44.Google Scholar
- Pitrat M: Melon (Cucumis melo L.). Handbook of Crop Breeding Vol I: Vegetables. Edited by: Prohens J, Nuez F. 2008, New York, USA: Springer, 283-315.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stepansky A, Kovalski I, Perl-Treves R: Intraspecific classification of melons (Cucumis melo L.) in view of their phenotypic and molecular variation. Plant Syst Evol. 1999, 217: 313-333. 10.1007/BF00984373.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Deleu W, Esteras C, Roig C, González-To M, Fernández-Silva I, Gonzalez-Ibeas D, Blanca J, Aranda MA, Arús P, Nuez F, Monforte AJ, Picó B, Garcia-Mas J: A set of EST-SNPs for map saturation and cultivar identification in melon. BMC Plant Biol. 2009, 9: 90-10.1186/1471-2229-9-90.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Esteras C, Lunn J, Sulpice R, Blanca J, Garcia-Mas J, Pitrat M, Nuez F, Picó B:Phenotyping a highly diverse core melon collection to be screened using Ecotilling. Phenotyping a highly diverse core melon collection to be screened using Ecotilling. 8th Plant Genomics European Meetings (Plant Gem): 7–10 October 2009. 2009, Lisbon: National Plant Genomics programmes in Europe and the European Research Area Network Plant Genomics, 214-Google Scholar
- Kijas JW, Townley D, Dalrymple BP, Heaton MP, Maddox JF, McGrath A, Wilson P, Ingersoll RG, McCulloch R, McWilliam S, Tang D, McEwan J, Cockett N, Oddy VH, Nicholas FW, Raadsma H: A Genome Wide Survey of SNP Variation Reveals the Genetic Structure of Sheep Breeds. PLoS One. 2009, 4 (3): e4668-10.1371/journal.pone.0004668.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deschamps S, Rota ML, Ratashak JP, Biddle P, Thureen D, Farmer A, Luck S, Beatty M, Nagasawa N, Michael L, Llaca V, Sakai H, May G, Lightner J, Campbell MA: Rapid genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in soybean and rice via deep resequencing of reduced representation libraries with the Illumina genome analyzer. The Plant Genome. 2010, 3 (1): 53-68. 10.3835/plantgenome2009.09.0026.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hyten DL, Cannon SB, Song Q, Weeks N, Fickus EW, Shoemaker RC, Specht JE, Farmer AD, May GD, Cregan PB: High-throughput SNP discovery through deep resequencing of a reduced representation library to anchor and orient scaffolds in the soybean whole genome sequence. BMC Genomics. 2010, 11: 38-10.1186/1471-2164-11-38.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hyten DL, Song Q, Fickus EW, Quigley CV, Lim JS, Choi IY, Hwang EY, Pastor-Corrales M, Cregan PB: High-throughput SNP discovery and assay development in common bean. BMC Genomics. 2010, 11 (1): 475-10.1186/1471-2164-11-475.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mullikin JC, Hansen NF, Shen L, Ebling H, Donahue WF, Tao W, Saranga DJ, Brand A, Rubenfield MJ, Young AC, Cruz P, Driscoll C, David V, Al-Murrani SWK, Locniskar MF, Abrahamsen MS, O'Brien SJ, Smith DR, Brockman JA: Light whole genome sequence for SNP discovery across domestic cat breeds. BMC Genomics. 2010, 11: 406-10.1186/1471-2164-11-406.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Myles S, Chia JM, Hurwitz B, Simon C, Zhong GY, Buckler E, Ware D: Rapid genomic characterization of the genus Vitis. PLoS One. 2010, 5 (1): e8219-10.1371/journal.pone.0008219.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wu X, Ren C, Joshi T, Vuong T, Xu D, Nguyen HT: SNP discovery by high-throughput sequencing in soybean. BMC Genomics. 2010, 11: 469-10.1186/1471-2164-11-469.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- You FM, Huo N, Deal KR, Gu YQ, Luo M-C, McGuire PE, Dvorak J, Anderson OD: Annotation-based genome-wide SNP discovery in the large and complex Aegilops tauschii genome using next-generation sequencing without a reference genome sequence. BMC Genomics. 2011, 12: 59-10.1186/1471-2164-12-59.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gonzalez-Ibeas D, Blanca J, Roig C, Gonzalez-To M, Picó B, Truniger V, Gómez P, Deleu W, Cano-Delgado A, Arús P, Nuez F, Garcia-Mas J, Puigdomènech P, Aranda MA: MELOGEN: an EST database for melon functional genomics. BMC Genomics. 2007, 8: 306-10.1186/1471-2164-8-306.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Clepet C, Joobeur T, Zheng Y, Jublot D, Huang M, Truniger V, Boualem A, Hernandez-Gonzalez ME, Dolcet-Sanjuan R, Portnoy V, Mascarell-Creus A, Caño-Delgado A, Katzir N, Bendahmane A, Giovannoni JJ, Aranda MA, Garcia-Mas J, Fei Z: Analysis of expressed sequence tags generated from full-length enriched cDNA libraries of melon. BMC Genomics. 2011, 12: 252-10.1186/1471-2164-12-252.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cucurbit Genomics Database of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI).http://www.icugi.org,
- Harel-Beja R, Tzuri G, Portnoy V, Lotan-Pompan M, Lev S, Cohen S, Dai N, Yeselson L, Meir A, Libhaber SE, Avisar E, Melame T, van Koert P, Verbakel H, Hofstede R, Volpin H, Oliver M, Fougedoire A, Stalh C, Fauve J, Copes B, Fei Z, Giovannoni J, Ori N, Lewinsohn E, Sherman A, Burger J, Tadmor Y, Schaffer AA, Katzir N: A genetic map of melon highly enriched with fruit quality QTLs and EST markers, including sugar and carotenoid metabolism genes. Theor Appl Genet. 2010, 121: 511-533. 10.1007/s00122-010-1327-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lai J, Li R, Xu X, Jin W, Xu M, Zhao H, Xiang Z, Song W, Ying K, Zhang M, Jiao Y, Ni P, Zhang J, Li D, Guo X, Ye K, Jian M, Wang B, Zheng H, Liang H, Zhang X, Wang S, Chen S, Li J, Fu Y, Springer NM, Yang H, Wang J, Dai J, Schnable PS, Wang J: Genome-wide patterns of genetic variation among elite maize inbred lines. Nat Genet. 2010, 42 (11): 1027-1030. 10.1038/ng.684.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nelson JC, Wang S, Wu Y, Li X, Antony G, White FF, Yu J: Single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery by high-throughput sequencing in sorghum. BMC Genomics. 2011, 12 (1): 352-10.1186/1471-2164-12-352.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Metzker ML: Sequencing technologies the next generation. Nat Rev Genet. 2010, 11: 31-46. 10.1038/nrg2626.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blanca J, Cañizares J, Ziarsolo P, Esteras C, Mir G, Nuez F, Garcia-Mas J, Picó B: Melon transcriptome characterization. SSRs and SNPs discovery for high throughput genotyping across the species. The Plant Genome. 2011, 4 (2): 118-131. 10.3835/plantgenome2011.01.0003.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Garcia-Mas J, Benjak A, Sanseverino W, Bourgeois M, Mir G, González VM, Hénaff E, Câmara F, Cozzuto L, Lowy E, Alioto T, Capella-Gutiérrez S, Blanca J, Cañizares J, Ziarsolo P, Gonzalez-Ibeas D, Rodríguez-Moreno L, Droege M, Du L, Alvarez-Tejado M, Lorente-Galdos B, Melé M, Yang L, Weng Y, Navarro A, Marques-Bonet T, Aranda MA, Nuez , Picó B, Gabaldón B, Roma G, Guigó R, Casacuberta JM, Arús P, Puigdomènech P: Genome of melon (C. melo L.) amplification in the absence of recent duplication in an old widely cultivated species. 2012, PNASGoogle Scholar
- Fergany M, Kaur B, Monforte AJ, Pitrat M, Rys C, Lecoq H, Dhillon NPS, Dhaliwal SS: Variation in melon (Cucumis melo) landraces adapted to the humid tropics of southern India. Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2011, 58: 225-243. 10.1007/s10722-010-9564-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kong Q, Xiang C, Yang J, Yu Z: Genetic Variations of Chinese Melon Landraces Investigated with EST-SSR Markers. Hort Environ Biotechnol. 2011, 52 (2): 163-169. 10.1007/s13580-011-0087-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Diaz A, Fergany M, Formisano G, Ziarsolo P, Blanca J, Fei Z, Staub JE, Zalapa JE, Cuevas HE, Dace G, Oliver M, Boissot N, Dogimont C, Pitrat M, Hofstede R, Koert P, Harel-Beja R, Tzuri G, Portnoy V, Cohen S, Schaffer A, Katzir N, Xu Y, Zhang H, Fukino N, Matsumoto S, Garcia-Mas J, Monforte AJ: A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and Quantitative Trait Loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.). BMC Plant Biol. 2011, 11: 111-10.1186/1471-2229-11-111.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Monforte AJ, Garcia-Mas J, Arús P: Genetic variability in melon based on microsatellite variation. Plant Breed. 2003, 122: 153-157. 10.1046/j.1439-0523.2003.00848.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bioinformatics at the Institute for the Conservation and Breeding of Agricultural Biodiversity (COMAV). Ngs_backbone.http://bioinf.comav.upv.es/ngs_backbone,
- Blanca J, Pascual L, Ziarsolo P, Nuez F, Cañizares J: Ngs_backbone: a pipeline for read cleaning, mapping and SNP calling using Next Generation Sequence. BMC Genomics. 2011, 12: 285-10.1186/1471-2164-12-285.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sasson A, Michael TP: Filtering error from SOLiD Output. Bioinformatics. 2010, 26 (6): 849-850. 10.1093/bioinformatics/btq045.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li H, Durbin R: Fast and accurate long-read alignment with Burrows-Wheeler transform. Bioinformatics. 2010, 26 (5): 589-595. 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp698.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barbazuk WB, Schnablec PS: SNP Discovery by Transcriptome Pyrosequencing. cDNA Libraries, Methods in Molecular Biology. 2011, 729: 225-246. 10.1007/978-1-61779-065-2_15. Part 2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Geraldes A, Pang J, Thiessen N, Cezard T, Moore R, Zhao Y, Tam A, Wang S, Friedmann M, Birol I, Jones SJM, Cronk QCB, Douglas CJ: SNP discovery in black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) by population transcriptome resequencing. Mol Ecol Resour. 2011, 11 (Suppl 1): 81-92. 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02960.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lam HM, Xu X, Liu X, Chen W, Yang G, Wong F-L, Li M-W, He W, Qin N, Wang B, Li J, Jian M, Wang J, Shao G, Wang J, Sun SS-M, Zhang G: Resequencing of 31 wild and cultivated soybean genomes identifies patterns of genetic diversity and selection. Nat Genet. 2010, 42: 1053-1059. 10.1038/ng.715.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Velasco R, Zharkikh A, Affourtit J, Dhingra A, Cestaro A, Kalyanaraman A, Fontana P, Bhatnagar SK, Troggio M, Pruss D, Salvi S, Pindo M, Baldi P, Castelletti S, Cavaiuolo M, Coppola G, Costa F, Cova V, Ri AD, Goremykin V: The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.). Nat Genet. 2010, 42: 833-839. 10.1038/ng.654.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mliki A, Staub JE, Zhangyong S, Ghorbel A: Genetic diversity in melon (Cucumis melo L.): An evaluation of African germplasm. Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2001, 48: 587-597. 10.1023/A:1013840517032.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Akashi Y, Tanaka K, Nishida H, Kato K, Khaning MT, Yi SS, Chou TT: Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among melon accessions from Africa and Asia revealed by RAPD analysis. Proc of Cucurbitaceae. Edited by: Holmes GJ. 2006, Universal Press Raleigh, Asheville, North Carolina, USA, 317-325.Google Scholar
- Yashiro K, Iwata H, Akashi Y, Tomita K, Kuzuya M, Tsumura Y, Kato K: Genetic relationship among East and South Asian melon (Cucumis melo L.) revealed by AFLP analysis. Breed Sci. 2005, 55: 197-206. 10.1270/jsbbs.55.197.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tanaka K, Nishitani A, Akashi Y, Sakata Y, Nishida H, Yoshino H, Kato K: Molecular characterization of South and East Asian melon, Cucumis melo L., and the origin of Group Conomon var. makuwa and var. conomon revealed by RAPD analysis. Euphytica. 2007, 153: 233-247.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Luan F, Delannay I, Staub JE: Chinese melon (Cucumis melo L.) diversity analyses provide strategies for germplasm curation, genetic improvement, and evidentiary support of domestication patterns. Euphytica. 2008, 164: 445-461. 10.1007/s10681-008-9699-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Staub JE, López-Sesé I, Fanourakis N: Diversity among melon landraces (Cucumis melo L.) from Greece and their genetic relationships with other melon germplasm of diverse origins. Euphytica. 2004, 136: 151-166.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dhillon NPS, Ranjana R, Singh K, Eduardo I, Monforte AJ, Pitrat M, Dhillon NK, Singh PP: Diversity among landraces of Indian snapmelon (Cucumis melo var. momordica). Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2007, 54: 1267-1283. 10.1007/s10722-006-9108-2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dhillon NPS, Singh J, Fergany M, Monforte AJ, Sureja AK: Phenotypic and molecular diversity among landraces of snapmelon (Cucumis melo var. momordica) adapted to the hot and humid tropics of eastern India. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization. 2009, 7 (3): 291-300. 10.1017/S1479262109990050.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sim SC, Robbins MD, Chilcott C, Zhu T, Francis DM: Oligonucleotide array discovery of polymorphisms in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) reveals patterns of SNP variation associated with breeding. BMC Genomics. 2009, 10: 466-10.1186/1471-2164-10-466.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Soltani F, Kashi A, Zamani Z, Mostofi Y, Akashi Y, Kato K: Characterization of Iranian melon landraces Groups Flexuosus and Dudaim by the analysis of morphological and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Breeding Sci. 2010, 60: 34-45. 10.1270/jsbbs.60.34.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sensoy S, Buyukalaca S, Abak K: Evaluation of genetic diversity in Turkish melons (Cucumis melo L.) based on phenotypic characters and RAPD markers. Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2007, 54: 1351-1365. 10.1007/s10722-006-9120-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kohpayegani JA, Behbahani M: Genetic diversity of some populations of Iranian melon using SSR markers. Biotechnology. 2008, 7 (1): 19-26. 10.3923/biotech.2008.19.26.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nimmakayala P, Tomason YR, Jeong J, Vajja G, Levi A, Gibson P, Reddy UK: Molecular diversity in the Ukrainian melon collection as revealed by AFLPs and microsatellites. Plant Genet Resour. 2009, 7: 127-134. 10.1017/S1479262108098481.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fanourakis N, Tsekoura Z, Nanou E: Morphological characteristics and powdery mildew resistance of Cucumis melo landraces in Greece. Proc Cucurbitaceae. Edited by: Katzir N, Paris HS. 2000, Israel: International society horticultural science, Belgium, Ma’aleh Hahamisha, 241-245. Acta Hort510Google Scholar
- Lotti C, Albo M, Ricciardi L, Conversa G, Elia A: Genetic diversity in ‘Carosello’ and ‘Barattiere’ ecotypes (Cucumis melo L.). Colture Protette. 2005, N5 (Suppl): 44-46.Google Scholar
- López-Sesé AI, Staub JE, Gómez-Guillamón ML: Genetic analysis of Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.) germplasm using a standardized molecular-marker array and geographically diverse reference accessions. Theor Appl Genet. 2003, 108 (1): 41-52. 10.1007/s00122-003-1404-z.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Escribano S, Lázaro A, Staub JE: Genetic diversity of Spanish melons (Cucumis melo) of the Madrid provenance. Cucurbitaceae 2008, Proc IX EUCARPIA Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Cucurbitaceae: 21–24 May 2008. Edited by: Pitrat M. 2008, France: INRA, Avignon, 301-305.Google Scholar
- Esteras C, Pascual L, Saladie M, Dogimont C, Garcia-Mas J, Nuez F, Picó B:Use of Ecotilling to identify natural allelic variants of melon candidate genes involved in fruit ripening. 8th Plant Genomics European Meetings (Plant Gem): 7–10 October 2009. 2009, Lisbon: National Plant Genomics programmes in Europe and the European Research Area Network Plant Genomics, 213-Google Scholar
- Lasserre E, Bouquin T, Hernandez JA, Bull J, Pech JC, Balagué C: Structure and expression of three genes encoding ACC oxidase homologs from melon (Cucumis melo L.). Mol Gen Genet. 1996, 251: 81-90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ruffel S, Gallois JL, Moury B, Robaglia C, Palloix A, Caranta C: Simultaneous mutations in translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E are required to prevent pepper veinal mottle virus infection of pepper. J Gen Virol. 2006, 87: 2089-2098. 10.1099/vir.0.81817-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- González M, Xu M, Esteras C, Roig C, Monforte AJ, Troadec C, Pujol M, Nuez F, Bendahmane A, Garcia-Mas J, Picó B: Towards a TILLING platform for functional genomics in Piel de Sapo melons. BMC Research Notes. 2011, 4: 289-10.1186/1756-0500-4-289.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- SIFT (Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant).http://blocks.fhcrc.org/sift/SIFT.html,
- Ng PC, Henikoff S: SIFT: predicting amino acid changes that affect protein function. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003, 31 (13): 3812-3814. 10.1093/nar/gkg509.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Robinson JT, Thorvaldsdóttir H, Winckler W, Guttman M, Lander ES, Getz G, Mesirov JP: Integrative Genomics Viewer. Nat Biotechnol. 2011, 29: 24-26. 10.1038/nbt.1754.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dahmani-Mardas F, Troadec C, Boualem A, LeÂ´veˆque S, Alsadon AA, Aldoss AA, Dogimont C, Bendahmane A: Engineering Melon Plants with Improved Fruit Shelf Life Using the TILLING Approach. PLoS One. 2010, 5 (12): e15776-10.1371/journal.pone.0015776.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gabriel S, Ziaugra L, Tabbaa D: SNP Genotyping Using the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX Platform. Curr Prot Hum Genet. 2009, 60 (2): unit 2-12.Google Scholar
- Liu K, Muse SV: Powermarker: Integrated analysis environment for genetic marker data. Bioinformatics. 2005, 21: 2128-2129. 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti282.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.