An integrative computational systems biology approach identifies differentially regulated dynamic transcriptome signatures which drive the initiation of human T helper cell differentiation
- Tarmo Äijö†1,
- Sanna M Edelman†2,
- Tapio Lönnberg2,
- Antti Larjo1, 4,
- Henna Kallionpää2, 3,
- Soile Tuomela2, 3,
- Emilia Engström2,
- Riitta Lahesmaa2 and
- Harri Lähdesmäki2, 4Email author
© Äijö et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 9 January 2012
Accepted: 2 October 2012
Published: 30 October 2012
A proper balance between different T helper (Th) cell subsets is necessary for normal functioning of the adaptive immune system. Revealing key genes and pathways driving the differentiation to distinct Th cell lineages provides important insight into underlying molecular mechanisms and new opportunities for modulating the immune response. Previous computational methods to quantify and visualize kinetic differential expression data of three or more lineages to identify reciprocally regulated genes have relied on clustering approaches and regression methods which have time as a factor, but have lacked methods which explicitly model temporal behavior.
We studied transcriptional dynamics of human umbilical cord blood T helper cells cultured in absence and presence of cytokines promoting Th1 or Th2 differentiation. To identify genes that exhibit distinct lineage commitment dynamics and are specific for initiating differentiation to different Th cell subsets, we developed a novel computational methodology (LIGAP) allowing integrative analysis and visualization of multiple lineages over whole time-course profiles. Applying LIGAP to time-course data from multiple Th cell lineages, we identified and experimentally validated several differentially regulated Th cell subset specific genes as well as reciprocally regulated genes. Combining differentially regulated transcriptional profiles with transcription factor binding site and pathway information, we identified previously known and new putative transcriptional mechanisms involved in Th cell subset differentiation. All differentially regulated genes among the lineages together with an implementation of LIGAP are provided as an open-source resource.
The LIGAP method is widely applicable to quantify differential time-course dynamics of many types of datasets and generalizes to any number of conditions. It summarizes all the time-course measurements together with the associated uncertainty for visualization and manual assessment purposes. Here we identified novel human Th subset specific transcripts as well as regulatory mechanisms important for the initiation of the Th cell subset differentiation.
KeywordsLineage commitment Non-parametric analysis Th cell differentiation Time-course transcriptomics Transcription factor binding
T cells are key regulators of the adaptive immune system and have a central role in defense against pathogens and cancer as well as protection from autoimmune diseases. CD4+ T lymphocytes can differentiate to functionally distinct effector subtypes, including T helper 1 (Th1), T helper 2 (Th2) and more recently described T helper 17 (Th17) cells . Th1 cells secrete effector cytokine IFN-γ and regulate cell-mediated immunity and play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. Th2 cells in turn produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 cytokines, and mediate immunity against extracellular pathogens and allergic reactions. Th17 cells, characterized by the production of a proinflammatory cytokine IL-17, regulate inflammatory responses on the mucosal surfaces. For the overall health in humans and animals, the proper balance between different effector T cell types and T regulatory cells is crucial [2, 3]. Aberrant activation of Th1 and Th17, or Th2 cells can trigger inflammatory autoimmune diseases as well as asthma and allergy. Previous studies utilizing genome-wide expression data and computational modeling have aimed at revealing the master regulators and regulatory networks within the differentiating Th1 and Th2 cells [4–9]. However, studies in human have been less extensive than in mouse due to the difficulty in collecting sufficient amount of samples to comprehensively profile T cell differentiation over time. In addition, lack of appropriate computational methods suitable for analyzing large-scale experimental data from multiple lineages over several time points spanning the lineage commitment process has limited the progress on revealing dynamics and molecular mechanisms underlying multiple lineage commitment.
A number of different time-series analysis approaches have been proposed to solve large-scale lineage commitment analysis problems. The general purpose F-test  can be used to test the difference between time-series data sets, but it does not extend to simultaneous comparison of multiple lineages and fails to take into account the correlation between the measurements at different time points. More recent approaches to analyze time-series data, including regression, differential expression, discriminant and clustering methods, are reviewed by Coffey and Hinde . Methods for differential expression analysis include e.g. spline-based methods, generalized F-tests and hierarchical error and empirical Bayes models. Spline-based EDGE method by Storey et al.  is relevant for our problem because it provides comparisons for multiple conditions (lineage commitment profiles). Although EDGE computes a p-value for differential expression, it does not quantify the differential expression for all lineage comparisons, such as reciprocal genes (i.e., all lineages behave differently). ANOVA-based TANOVA method is based on the approach where different ANOVA structures are defined and the optimal one is found by evaluating the effects and significancies of the factors . Recently, Stegle et al. proposed an approach based on Gaussian processes (GP) to determine the time interval when a gene is differentially expressed. The methodology of Stegle et al. (2010) was limited to analyzing only two conditions. Moreover, it is often observed at transcriptional level that immediately after a treatment, such as activation of T cells by engagement of T cell receptor and CD28, genes are highly dynamic for some time but activity of gene expression decreases at later time points [15, 16]. Thus, an ideal computational method − that does not exist at the moment − should take into account the temporal correlation, handle a non-uniform measurement grid, cope with non-stationary processes, and be able to do a well-defined analysis of multiple conditions.
Here we developed a computational methodology, LIGAP (Li neage commitment using Ga ussian p rocesses) which analyzes experimental data from any number of lineage commitment time-course profiles and analyzed genome-wide gene expression profiles of human umbilical cord blood T helper cells (Thp) activated through their CD3 and CD28 receptors and cultured in absence (Th0) or presence of cytokines promoting Th1 or Th2 differentiation. The results give insight into differences of the three lineages in the expression landscape and provide marker genes for lineage commitment identification. Key lineage specific, that is, differentially regulated, genes discovered computationally were validated either experimentally at protein level or based on the published literature. Using a module-based analysis, we identified known and putative regulatory control mechanisms by overlaying highly coherent lineage profile clusters with genome-wide transcription factor (TF) binding predictions and pathway information. Consistent with the previously published results on IL-4/STAT6-mediated control of a large fraction of genes in Th2 program , our analysis revealed a comparable up-regulated and down-regulated modules, which are suggested to be controlled by STAT6 and other TFs. Interestingly, we also found that the genes which behave differently between all the lineages studied exhibit a consistent characteristic pattern, i.e., they are up-regulated in Th1 polarizing cells, down-regulated in Th2 polarizing cells, and in activated cells (Th0) the expression levels are between Th1 and Th2 cells. In addition, our analysis revealed a large set of novel genes, which are specific for different T cell subsets in human. All the gene expression data and differentially regulated genes as well as software implementing our computational analysis are made publicly available.
Experimental data from primary human CD4+ T cells
We used previously published time-course gene expression measurements of activated primary human T cells (Th0) and cells polarized to differentiate to Th2 lineage  as well as previously unpublished data set representing Th1 polarizing cells originating from the same naïve Th precursor cells as the Th0 and Th2 cells. The gene expression of Th1 lineage was measured at time points 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. The measurements from Th0 and Th2 samples were available at the same time points.
LIGAP: A computational technique to identify condition specific time-course profiles
LIGAP identifies signatures of Th0, Th1 and Th2 cell lineages
Differentially expressed genes in T cells polarized towards the Th0, Th1 and Th2 subsets
Top 18 Th0 specific genes
Top 49 Th1 specific genes
Top 50 Th2 specific genes
Affymetrix probe ID
Affymetrix probe ID
Affymetrix probe ID
Interestingly, the retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma (RORC) gene encoding RORγt, the key transcription factor in the differentiation program of Th17 cells, was also identified as a Th1 specific gene by the LIGAP analysis (Table 1) as its expression was up-regulated at 48 h time point (Figure 3C). In human, small numbers of T cells producing both IL-17 and IFNγ have been characterized in peripheral blood, in lamina propria of patients with Crohn’s disease as well as in patients with psoriasis [28–30], but currently is it not known how such cells are derived from the naïve precursor cells. Other novel Th1 specific hits identified by the LIGAP include two cytoskeleton associated protein-coding genes dystrophin (DMD) and palladin (PALLD). DMD encodes actin-binding cytoskeletal structure molecule, which has been mostly studied in patients with Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy . These patients develop dystrophin specific autoreactive T cells , however, the biological role for dystrophin or palladin in differentiating Th cells is not known. Other genes novel in this context and putatively important for Th1 cell differentiation and/or function include METRNL, (meteorin, glial cell differentiation regulator-like), associated with rare cases of Mild ring 17 syndrome , GLUL encoding a glutamine synthetase, and associated with neuronal disorders and atherosclerotic carotid plaques [33, 34], MCTP2 (multiple C2 domains, trans membrane 2), BBS12 (Bardet-Biedl syndrome 12), STAG3 (stromal antigen 3), a meiotic gene, as well as PGAP1 (post-GPI attachment to proteins 1). NAPSB coding for aspartic protease Napsin B is known to be expressed in human spleen and peripheral blood leucocytes, however, it is estimated to be only a transcribed pseudogene [35, 36]. Similarly, MIAT (myocardial infarction associated transcript) is a non-protein coding gene , and the relevance of these transcripts in T cell differentiation is not understood, yet.
Reciprocal regulators of lineage commitment
The genes whose expression time-courses differ between all the lineages
Affymetrix probe ID
Known characteristics in CD4+ T helper cells
required for proper IFNg production 
positive regulation on T cell proliferation, tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and production of IL-12 
expression upregulated in Th1 cells
expression upregulated in Th1 cells 
expression upregulated in Th2 cells 
expression upregulated in Th2 cells 
expression upregulated in Th1 cells 
expression regulated by STAT6 in Th2 cells 
G-protein coupled receptor
G-protein coupled 1receptor
expression upregulated in Th2 cells 
selectively expressed on Th2 cells, important for trafficking of Th2 cells, required for allergic immune response by Th2 cells 
expression upregulated in Th2 cells 
G-protein coupled receptor
expression upregulated in Th2 cells 
expression upregulated in Th2 cells 
expression upregulated in Th1 cells 
expression up-regulated by IL-12, regulates the production of Th1 hallmark cytokine IFNg 
used in homing to secondary lymphoid organs 
important for TCR-induced cell death in Th2 but not Th1 cells 
G-protein coupled receptor
The Th2 up-regulated genes, PDE7B, SETBP1, C9orf135, TPRG1, IGSF3, or PPP1R14A have not been linked to CD4+ Th cell function, although their IL-4 mediated up-regulation has been published, and furthermore, SETBP1, TPRG1 and PPP1R14A have been identified as direct targets of STAT6 . Interestingly, we observed that most of the genes whose expression differs between all the three lineages behave in a similar manner, i.e., they are up-regulated in Th1 and down-regulated in Th2.
Transcription factor binding sites in Th2 lineage
To extend our transcriptional analysis into transcriptional regulation, we decided to systematically analyze both genome-wide transcription factor (TF) binding site predictions made in silico and comprehensive literature-derived information about target genes of selected TFs. First, we predicted which of the transcription factors have binding sites in the RefSeq gene promoters (defined as [−1000,500] bp around TSS) using the ProbTF tool  combined with an empirical p-value computation. We focused on genes that were identified by the previous LIGAP analysis and considered all transcription factors that had known binding specificities (position specific frequency matrices, PSFMs) in TRANSFAC  (version 2009.3). We did not restrict our analysis only to those TFs whose transcripts are differentially expressed because, e.g., STAT6 is not differentially expressed during the early differentiation although it is a master regulator in the early differentiation of Th2 cells .
An important goal is to identify master regulators of the lineage commitment processes. Recently, it was found out that most of the direct targets of STAT6, an important regulator of Th2 differentiation, were up-regulated in Th2 cells . Here we were interested in identifying TFs whose binding sites are enriched in the promoter regions of the genes which are differentially regulated in Th2 conditions, both among the up-regulated and down-regulated genes. Instead of looking at individual TF binding predictions that are prone to contain false positives, we used the Fisher’s exact test to search for enrichment of binding sites, in comparison to randomly selected gene set. The same analysis was carried out separately for all the differentially regulated gene sets and by taking into account the direction of regulation (repressed or activated).
The three TF hits having enriched predicted binding sites among the Th2 down-regulated genes were the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family of TFs (p-value = 2.5 e-6), IFN-stimulated genes factor 3 (ISGF3) (p-value = 1.8 e-4) and STAT6 (p-value = 3.5 e-3). IRF family consists of IRF1 to IRF10 and has been shown to be essential in expression of type I interferon genes, IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) and other pro-inflammatory response related cytokines . These genes are maintained down-regulated during Th2 proliferation and therefore, the results are in line with the Th2 effector cells characteristics . Moreover, IFNγ-induced expression of IRF1 and IRF2 has been shown to directly down-regulate IL-4 production by repressing IL-4 promoter sites . Opposing to other IRF family proteins, IRF4 has been shown to directly activate IL-4 promoter and IL-10 regulatory elements and be essential in Th2 cell differentiation by influencing the expression of GFI1, a transcriptional repressor in Th2 cells [90–92]. However, the analysis relying on known TF binding specificities will not allow segregation of individual members of the IRF family. Further, an essential regulator of most ISGs is ISGF3 that is composed of STAT1, STAT2 and IRF9 complex and works in conjunction with IRFs . Identification of STAT6 as a regulator among the Th2 down-regulated genes is well in line with our previously published results, although its effect was observed to be less profound within Th2 down-regulated genes than among Th2 up-regulated target genes . Comparison analysis of the predicted STAT6 target genes and Th2 up-regulated and down-regulated genes gave 16 and 19 overlapping genes, respectively. The full lists of overlapping genes are in Additional file 3: Table S2. We further analyzed the correlation between predicted STAT6 target promoters and experimentally observed promoter associated binding sites (Elo et al., ), and observed significant correlation (p<0.05) between the target sites. The full list of predicted STAT6 target genes and promoter associated STAT6 binding sites identified by ChIP-seq as well as the overlapping genes are listed in the Additional file 3: Table S2. The overlapping binding sites included promoters for C14orf177, CISH, HMMR, INO80, MGAT1, NUDCD2, SOCS1, SPINT2 and ZNF570 genes.
Identification of the key T helper cell regulators provides possible targets for modulation of immune response. To reveal T cell subset specific genes and their often subtle differences in expression, we developed a novel computational method, LIGAP. Traditional ways of identifying differentially expressed genes, such as the t-test, are problematic in studying time-series data since there is a need to carry out hypothesis tests on individual time points. On the other hand, commonly used statistical tests for whole time-course, including e.g. F-test, do not account for the inherent correlation between measurement time points. LIGAP overcomes many problems that have previously prevented quantitative comparisons of multiple differentiation profiles, with or without replicates. Among several beneficial features, LIGAP models correlation between time points and can cope with non-stationarities and non-uniform measurement grid. Other methods, such as EDGE, uses splines to estimate smooth time-course profiles but does not quantify the differential expression for all lineage comparisons. TANOVA uses standard regression framework and lacks explicit correlation structure between time points. Our study highlights the validity of the method by identifying known and novel differentially regulated genes and their kinetic differences during T helper cell differentiation. In addition, the non-parametric computational analysis automatically provides informative illustrations of time-course profiles together with associated uncertainty.
LIGAP calculated Th0 specific gene set contains only 18 genes and Th1 specific 49 genes compared to 466 genes that are specific to Th2 conditions. Activation of Thp cells through TCR and CD28 results in induction of IFNγ, which in turn leads to activation of Th1 signature genes. Addition of IL-12, however, results in enhanced induction of these genes and Th1 programming. Consistent with our previous results genes differentially regulated in response to Th1 programming are much more limited than those detected in response to initiation of Th2 response [16, 94].
Most of the Th1 specific genes encode well-known Th1 signature molecules. However, also genes new in this context were discovered. Interestingly, we identified RORC as one of the Th1 specific genes. Up-regulation of RORC in Th1 cells and existence of Th17/Th1 cells, however, remain conflicting as the master regulator of Th1 differentiation, T-bet, is known to inhibit transcription of RORC through RUNX1 , and expression of IL12Rβ2 is down-regulated by IL-17 . It has been suggested that the high concentration of TGFβ required for in vitro Th17 polarization would inhibit IFNγ production , hence, it remains an open question whether some conditions would drive the differentiation of IL-17 and IFNγ producing cells from same naïve precursor T cell. Notably, ex vivo Th17 cells could be induced to develop further into Th17/Th1 cells by the combined actions of IFNγ and IL-12, and such conditions resulted in permissive chromatin remodeling at the IL12RB2 locus and loss of repressive histone modification at the TBX21 locus [29, 98].
As an example of previously uncharacterized differentially regulated genes, we validated the expression of Th2-associated phosphatases DUSP6 and PPP1R14A on protein level. PPP1R14A was shown in human pancreatic and melanoma tumor cell lines to positively regulate Ras/MAPK signaling , which are also involved in IL-4 induced signaling cascades. In T cells, the ERKs are activated though TCR stimulation and a TCR-mediated activation of Ras/MAPK signaling is required in differentiating murine Th2 but not in Th1 cells . Furthermore, the Ras/MAPK cascade was shown to enhance the stability of GATA3 protein  as well as STAT6 independent CD3 and CD28 induced initial IL4 production . DUSP6 on other hand is known to negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily associated with cellular proliferation and differentiation . More specifically, DUSP6 expression was shown to be induced by ERK1/2 signaling in differentiating mouse embryonic cell line and in human retinal pigment epithelial cells [104, 105] and it was hypothesized that DUSP6 is an essential part of a negative feedback loop of ERK1/2 signaling . However, the T cell associated functions of both PPP1R14A and DUSP6 are completely unknown. Therefore, their significance in the signaling cascades of differentiating Th2 cells remains a highly interesting area of future research.
SPINT2 was recently identified as a direct STAT6 target in differentiating human Th2 cells  and in this study we are the first to show that SPINT2 is upregulated in Th2 cells at protein level as compared to other Th cell subsets. We found SPINT2 to be specifically expressed on Th2 cell surface as well as secreted into the culture medium, suggesting presence of a multiple transcripts of which some may lack the anchoring transmembrane domain . Human SPINT2 (HAI-2) is a physiological inhibitor of matrix cleaving proteases and decreased expression of SPINT2 has been linked to progression of several cancers [107–109]. Up-regulated expression of extracellular proteases is crucial for pro-cancerous pathways as this enables efficient remodeling of the extracellular matrix as well as cleavage and activation of growth factors and their receptors. Interestingly, a truncated and secreted SPINT2 may act as an inhibitor for the activator of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and HGF is prominently expressed in lung tissue and is linked to reduced expression of Th2 cytokines and TGFβ, reduction of allergic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling as well as reduced recruitment of eosinophils to the site of allergic inflammation in vivo[110, 111]. This suggests that SPINT2 might enhance Th2 response in allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting HGF signaling.
The LIGAP method elegantly identified the reciprocally regulated genes within the Th0, Th1 and Th2 conditions. Essentially, the list included genes encoding the hallmark Th1 specific transcription factor T-bet and cytokine IFNγ as well as the transmembrane receptor for IL-12. This list also included few cytoskeleton associated proteins, such as dystrophin (DMD), and palladin (PALLD), of which there is no current knowledge for their function in differentiating T helper cells. The observation suggests differences in cellular structures or putatively in the interaction of APC with the Th cell subsets as rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in T cells plays an important role in the organization of the immunological synapse (IS) and Th1 and Th2 cells are known to form morphologically distinct ISs [112, 113]. In addition to MAP3K8, molecules that participate in phosphorylation signaling cascades e.g. P2RY14, LPAR3, PPP1R14A, and PTPRO suggest their potential role for initiation or regulation of differentiation cascades. Importantly, the results presented here enable opportunities for further data mining and follow-up studies addressing the functions and importance of the novel Th subset specific genes.
The identification of STAT6 as the most significant TF regulating Th2 specific enhancement of transcription by the TF binding analysis is well in line with our previous STAT6 ChIP results . Furthermore, the analysis between the predicted STAT6 target gene promoters and experimentally observed promoter associated binding sites showed statistically significant correlation. Interestingly, the overlapping STAT6 targets included INO80, which has been identifies as a part of a chromatin remodeling complex  and may hence, be involved in Th2 specific epigenetical regulation of Th cell differentiation. STAT6 specific regulation of Mannosyl (alpha-1,3-)-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (MGAT1), a N-glycan-processing enzyme , may on one hand be involved in modifying the Th2 cell specific surface glycoprotein structures . The overlapping target sites included also the promoter for SPINT2. The number of predicted STAT6 binding sites, however, was much larger than the experimentally observed binding sites, which may reflect the typically observed high false positive rate of computational binding predictions and the cell type specific state of chromatin as well as other competing factors affecting binding in vitro. The data created here also further suggests novel control mechanisms involving GATA3 regulated NKX3A as well as chromatin modification associated CDP. Only less than 10% of the Th2 down-regulated genes were reported to be direct targets of STAT6 by Elo et al., () suggesting other major regulatory mechanisms play role among the IL-4 induced down-regulated genes. We found enrichment of IRF family and ISGF3 binding motifs in promoter regions of genes that are repressed in Th2 polarizing conditions, indicating that these TFs may play a significant role in the suppressing undesired gene expression in differentiating Th2 cells. Indeed, several IRF family members have been identified as differentially expressed during Th cell differentiation and necessary for both Th1 and Th2 polarization. As the IRF family proteins, excluding IRF1, share the same binding specificity model in TRANSFAC, the individual regulatory role for these factors is, however, difficult to postulate based on in silico TF binding site analysis.
The proposed LIGAP method can quantify a well-defined probabilistic specificity score for each gene and for each condition promoting a certain lineage commitment. In addition to grouping and ranking genes based on their dynamics, LIGAP summarizes all time-course measurements, together with the associated uncertainty, in an illustrative summary plot for visualization and manual assessment purposes. While here we have demonstrated the utility of LIGAP in analysis of gene expression dynamics, the LIGAP method is widely applicable to many types of datasets including quantitative time-course experiments and generalizes to any number of conditions.
Human CD4+ T cell purification and culturing. The human naïve umbilical cord blood CD4+ T cells were isolated as previously described . Briefly, umbilical cord blood was collected from healthy neonates born in Turku University Hospital, Finland. Mononuclear cells were separated with Ficoll-Paque gradient centrifugation (#GEHE17-1440-3, Amersham Biosciences) and CD4+ T cells were then isolated with magnetic beads (Dynal CD4 Positive Isolation Kit, #113-31D, Invitrogen). After isolation the CD4+ cells were pooled to prepare cell cultures consisting cells from several neonates. The same pooled cells as utilized for Th0 (activated) and Th2 (activated and IL-4 stimulated) culture conditions by Elo et al. () were used parallel for Th1 polarizing cultures. For activation, the cells were treated with plate-bound anti-CD3 (500 ng/24-well culture plate well, #IM1304, Immunotech) and soluble anti-CD28 (500 ng/ml, #IM1376, Immunotech) in density of 2-4 × 106 cells/ml of Yssel’s medium (Iscove modified Dulbecco medium, #31980-048, Invitrogen) supplemented with Yssel medium concentrate , 1% human AB serum (#C11-011, PAA) and 100 U/ml Penicillin and 100 μg/ml Streptomycin (#P0781, Sigma) at 37°C in 5% CO2. For induction of Th1 cell polarization, IL-12 (2.5 ng/ml, # 219-IL, R&D Systems) was added to the cultures. At 48h after activation, IL-2 was added (17 ng/ml, #202-IL, R&D Systems) to all the cells and the polarizing conditions were maintained throughout the culture. The polarizing Th cells were harvested at time points 0, 12, 24, 48 hours in three replicates and at 72 hours in two replicates.
All the data included in this manuscript has been acquired under the permission from the Ethics Committee of the Hospital District of Southwest Finland approving the anonymous collection of cord blood samples after a parental consent, and the permission being in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration
Microarray studies. The preparation of samples for microarray detections was done as described in . Essentially, total RNA (RNeasy Mini Kit, Qiagen) was extracted from the cultured cells and cRNA hybridized on Affymetrix GeneChip HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, USA). All the microarray samples included in this study have been prepared at Finnish DNA Microarray Centre, Turku. The raw microarray data were processed using robust multi-array average normalization and log2-transformed in R (version 2.12.0) using the Bioconductor affy package (version 1.28.0).
Flow cytometry. The Th0, Th1 and Th2 condition cells at 24 hours were stained for SPINT2 expression studies. Purified anti-SPINT2 (8.7 μg/ml, #HPA 011101-100UL, Sigma-Aldrich) was used as primary antibody followed by staining with FITC-conjugated F(ab’)2 anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody (1:1000 dilution, #11-4839-81, eBioscience). The stainings were analyzed with LSR II flow cytometer (BD Biosciences) and Flowing Software (http://www.flowingsoftware.com).
ELISA. The cell culture supernatants (at 48 hours) from Th0, Th1 and Th2 conditions were assayed for SPINT2/HAI-2 secretion by ELISA (# DY1106, R&D) according to the manufacturer instructions.
LIGAP. We construct our model-based lineage commitment comparison and visualization methodology, called LIGAP, using non-parametric GP regression similar to that in , extend the methodology to any number of conditions and propose to use a non-stationary neural network (NN) covariance function k(xp,xq) = σ*asin(xp '*diag(l-2)*xq / sqrt[(1+xp'*diag(l-2)*xp)*(1+xq'*diag(l-2)*xq)]). The vectors xp and xq are augmented by an extra bias unit value entry and the parameter l defines the length-scale and σ controls the signal variance . A non-stationary covariance function is chosen because often after cell activation or other stimulation the effects on temporal behavior of gene expression are very active and dynamic right after the stimulation but they mellow down over time and, thus, the observed behavior is non-stationary. For each gene at a time, LIGAP makes all comparisons between different cell subsets over the whole time-course data sets. In our application, the multiple hypotheses Hj are defined by the different partitions of the cell lineages. For example, if there are only two different lineages, then there are two different partitions (or hypothesis): H1 denotes that lineages are similar and H2 denotes that lineages are different. In our application consisting of three lineages, Th0, Th1 and Th2, we have 5 alternative hypotheses; (i) “Th0, Th1, Th2 time-course profiles are all similar” (hypothesis H1), (ii) “Th0 and Th1 are similar and Th2 is different” (hypothesis H2), (iii) “Th0 and Th2 are similar and Th1 is different” (hypothesis H3), (iv) “Th1 and Th2 are similar and Th0 is different” (hypothesis H4), and (v) “Th0, Th1, and Th2 are different from each other” (hypothesis H5). LIGAP comparisons and quantifications are illustrated in Figure 1. In general, the total number of different partitions of N lineages is known in literature as the Bell number Bn (e.g., B1 = 1, B2 =2, B3 = 5, B4 = 15, etc.) .
Bayes factor is commonly used to see the evidence of the two alternative hypotheses; differentially expressed or not within a given time interval. To extend this to multiple lineages, we use the marginal likelihood p(Di | Hj) to define the posterior probabilities of the different hypotheses Hj. For each of the hypothesis Hj, the data Di for the ith gene is split according to the partitioning. For example, for our application containing three lineages, hypothesis H1 corresponds to grouping data from all lineages, hypothesis H2 corresponds to splitting the data so that Th0 and Th1 time-course profiles are grouped together and time-course profiles from Th2 forms its own subset of data, hypothesis H3 corresponds to splitting the data so that Th0 and Th2 time-course profiles are grouped together and Th1 forms its own subset of data, etc.
For each hypothesis, non-parametric regression is carried out separately for each subset of the data. For example, for the hypothesis H3 we fit a GP to the combination of Th0 and Th2 time-course profiles and another GP to the Th1 time-course profiles. Following the standard GP regression methodology , the marginalization is done over the latent regression function and the hyperparameters are estimated using type II maximum likelihood estimation with a conjugate gradient based optimization algorithm initiated with ten randomly chosen hyperparameter values. Under the assumption of Gaussian likelihood and noise, the marginal likelihood can be written out analytically, and thus its value can be easily evaluated . The marginal likelihood of a certain hypothesis (i.e., partitioning) is the product of the marginal likelihood of the separate subsets. The key idea behind the modeling is to find the marginal likelihood of the data under different hypotheses and thus have a probabilistic score to objectively compare different hypotheses.
Using the Bayes’ theorem and assuming unbiased, equal prior probabilities for different hypotheses (i.e., P(Hk) = P(Hl) for all k and l), we can write the posterior probabilities for the ith gene as P(Hj | Di) = P(Di | Hj)P(Hj)/C, where C = Σj P(Di | Hj)P(Hj) is a normalizing constant. Finally, these quantities can be combined to quantify the score of differential regulation for each gene. For example, the probability of the ith gene being differentially regulated in Th2 lineage can be quantified as P(“Gene is differentially regulated in Th2” | Di) = P(H2 | Di) + P(H5 | Di) .
ProbTF . ProbTF  method is used to make TF binding predictions on promoters of all RefSeq genes. Sequence specificities of TFs are taken from the TRANSFAC database  version 2009.3. All non-redundant PSFMs associated to human were taken, totaling 248 matrices. Promoters are defined as the [−1000,500] bp region around TSS. To assess statistical significance, we construct a TF specific null distribution by randomly sampling 50000 genomic locations of size 1501 nucleotides, against which the p-values of TF binding are computed.
Hierarchical clustering. The hierarchical clustering in Figure 5 was done using complete linkage and Euclidean distance metric.
Data access. The data discussed in this publication have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus  and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE 32959 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE32959).
We thank Marjo Linja, Outi Melin and Sarita Heinonen for technical assistance; the staff of the Finnish DNA Microarray Centre for microarray hybridizations; all voluntary blood donors and the personnel of Turku University Hospital Delivery Department (Hospital District of Southwest Finland) for the sample collection; Prof. Ryuji Okamoto for providing PPP1R14A antibody; Dr. Laura Elo for collaborative data analysis efforts in previous T cell differentiation studies; Dr. Zhi Chen for critical reading and constructive comments of the mansucript; and professors Matej Orešic and Tero Aittokallio for sharing the costs of the microarray studies in a collaborative research project. This work was supported by the Academy of Finland (grants 77773, 203725, 207490, 116639, 115939, 123864, 126063, 135320 and application number 213462), EU FP7 grants "Systems Biology of T-cell activation in health and disease" (EC-FP7-SYBILLA-201106), EC-FP7-NANOMMUNE-214281 and EC-FP7-DIABIMMUNE-202063, EU ERASysBio ERA-NET, FICS graduate school, CIMO/Sitra grant, The Sigrid Jusélius Foundation, and Turku University Hospital Grant. This work benefited from the Tampere Center for Scientific Computing (TCSC) and Techila Technologies's grid computing solution.
- Weaver CT, Harrington LE, Mangan PR, Gavrieli M, Murphy KM: Th17: an effector CD4 T cell lineage with regulatory T cell ties. Immunity. 2006, 24: 677-688. 10.1016/j.immuni.2006.06.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Neurath MF, Finotto S, Glimcher LH: The role of Th1/Th2 polarization in mucosal immunity. Nat Med. 2002, 8: 567-573. 10.1038/nm0602-567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sheikh A, Strachan DP: The hygiene theory: fact or fiction?. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004, 12: 232-236. 10.1097/01.moo.0000122311.13359.30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hutton JJ, Jegga AG, Kong S, Gupta A, Ebert C, Williams S, Katz JD, Aronow BJ: Microarray and comparative genomics-based identification of genes and gene regulatory regions of the mouse immune system. BMC Genomics. 2004, 5: 82-10.1186/1471-2164-5-82.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aghajanova L, Skottman H, Strömberg A-M, Inzunza J, Lahesmaa R, Hovatta O: Expression of leukemia inhibitory factor and its receptors is increased during differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. Fertil Steril. 2006, 86: 1193-1209. 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.12.081.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mariani L, Löhning M, Radbruch A, Höfer T: Transcriptional control networks of cell differentiation: insights from helper T lymphocytes. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2004, 86: 45-76. 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2004.02.007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- van den Ham H-J, de Boer RJ: From the two-dimensional Th1 and Th2 phenotypes to high-dimensional models for gene regulation. Int Immunol. 2008, 20: 1269-1277. 10.1093/intimm/dxn093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- van den Ham HJ, De Waal L, Andeweg AC, De Boer RJ: Identification of helper T cell master regulator candidates using the polar score method. J Immunol Methods. 2010, 361: 98-109. 10.1016/j.jim.2010.07.009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pedicini M, Barrenäs F, Clancy T, Castiglione F, Hovig E, Kanduri K, Santoni D, Benson M: Combining network modeling and gene expression microarray analysis to explore the dynamics of Th1 and Th2 cell regulation. PLoS Computational Biol. 2010, 6: e1001032-10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001032.Google Scholar
- Smyth G, limma: Linear Models for Microarray Data Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Solutions Using R and Bioconductor. Edited by: Gentleman R, Carey VJ, Huber W, Irizarry RA, Dudoit S. 2005, Springer: New York, 397-420. Gail M, Krickeberg K, Samet JM, Tsiatis A, Wong W (Series Editor): Statistics for Biology and Health, Springer, New York, pages 397–420Google Scholar
- Coffey N, Hinde J: Analyzing Time-Course Microarray Data Using Functional Data Analysis - A Review. Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol. 2011, 10: 10-32.Google Scholar
- Storey JD, Xiao W, Leek JT, Tompkins RG, Davis RW: Significance analysis of time course microarray experiments. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005, 102: 12837-12842. 10.1073/pnas.0504609102.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhou BY, Xu WH, Herndon D, Tompkins R, Davis R, Xiao WZ, Wong WH: Inflammation Host Response I: Analysis of factorial time-course microarrays with application to a clinical study of burn injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010, 107: 9923-9928. 10.1073/pnas.1002757107.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stegle O, Denby KJ, Cooke EJ, Wild DL, Ghahramani Z, Borgwardt KM: A robust Bayesian two-sample test for detecting intervals of differential gene expression in microarray time series. J Comput Biol: J Comput Mol Biol. 2010, 17: 355-367.Google Scholar
- Lund RJ, Ylikoski EK, Aittokallio T, Nevalainen O, Lahesmaa R: Kinetics and STAT4- or STAT6-mediated regulation of genes involved in lymphocyte polarization to Th1 and Th2 cells. Eur J Immunol. 2003, 33: 1105-1116. 10.1002/eji.200323899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lund RJ, Löytömäki M, Naumanen T, Dixon C, Chen Z, Ahlfors H, Tuomela S, Tahvanainen J, Scheinin J, Henttinen T, et al: Genome-wide identification of novel genes involved in early Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation. J Immunology (Baltimore, Md: 1950). 2007, 178: 3648-3660.Google Scholar
- Elo LL, Järvenpää H, Tuomela S, Raghav S, Ahlfors H, Laurila K, Gupta B, Lund RJ, Tahvanainen J, Hawkins RD, et al: Genome-wide profiling of interleukin-4 and STAT6 transcription factor regulation of human Th2 cell programming. Immunity. 2010, 32: 852-862. 10.1016/j.immuni.2010.06.011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jeffreys H: Theory of probability. 1998, USA: Oxford University Press, 3Google Scholar
- Nakanishi K, Yoshimoto T, Tsutsui H, Okamura H: Interleukin-18 regulates both Th1 and Th2 responses. Annu Rev Immunol. 2001, 19: 423-474. 10.1146/annurev.immunol.19.1.423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tominaga K, Yoshimoto T, Torigoe K, Kurimoto M, Matsui K, Hada T, Okamura H, Nakanishi K: IL-12 synergizes with IL-18 or IL-1beta for IFN-gamma production from human T cells. Int Immunol. 2000, 12: 151-160. 10.1093/intimm/12.2.151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Micallef MJ, Ohtsuki T, Kohno K, Tanabe F, Ushio S, Namba M, Tanimoto T, Torigoe K, Fujii M, Ikeda M, et al: Interferon-gamma-inducing factor enhances T helper 1 cytokine production by stimulated human T cells: synergism with interleukin-12 for interferon-gamma production. Eur J Immunol. 1996, 26: 1647-1651. 10.1002/eji.1830260736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xu DM, Trajkovic V, Hunter D, Leung BP, Schulz K, Gracie JA, McInnes IB, Liew FY: IL-18 induces the differentiation of Th1 or Th2 cells depending upon cytokine milieu and genetic background. Eur J Immunol. 2000, 30: 3147-3156. 10.1002/1521-4141(200011)30:11<3147::AID-IMMU3147>3.0.CO;2-J.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Niesner U, Albrecht I, Janke M, Doebis C, Loddenkemper C, Lexberg MH, Eulenburg K, Kreher S, Koeck J, Baumgrass R, et al: Autoregulation of Th1-mediated inflammation by twist1. J Exp Med. 2008, 205: 1889-1901. 10.1084/jem.20072468.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim CH, Kunkel EJ, Boisvert J, Johnston B, Campbell JJ, Genovese MC, Greenberg HB, Butcher EC: Bonzo/CXCR6 expression defines type 1-polarized T-cell subsets with extralymphoid tissue homing potential. J Clin Invest. 2001, 107: 595-601. 10.1172/JCI11902.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Langenkamp A, Nagata K, Murphy K, Wu L, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F: Kinetics and expression patterns of chemokine receptors in human CD4+ T lymphocytes primed by myeloid or plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol. 2003, 33: 474-482. 10.1002/immu.200310023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Casas R, Lindau C, Zetterström O, Duchén K: Downregulation of CXCR6 and CXCR3 in lymphocytes from birch-allergic patients. Scand J Immunol. 2008, 68: 351-361. 10.1111/j.1365-3083.2008.02146.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Watford WT, Hissong BD, Durant LR, Yamane H, Muul LM, Kanno Y, Tato CM, Ramos HL, Berger AE, Mielke L, et al: Tpl2 kinase regulates T cell interferon-gamma production and host resistance to Toxoplasma gondii. J Exp Med. 2008, 205: 2803-2812. 10.1084/jem.20081461.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Annunziato F, Cosmi L, Santarlasci V, Maggi L, Liotta F, Mazzinghi B, Parente E, Filì L, Ferri S, Frosali F, et al: Phenotypic and functional features of human Th17 cells. J Exp Med. 2007, 204: 1849-1861. 10.1084/jem.20070663.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lexberg MH, Taubner A, Albrecht I, Lepenies I, Richter A, Kamradt T, Radbruch A, Chang H-D: IFN-γ and IL-12 synergize to convert in vivo generated Th17 into Th1/Th17 cells. Eur J Immunol. 2010, 40: 3017-3027. 10.1002/eji.201040539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zaba LC, Suárez-Fariñas M, Fuentes-Duculan J, Nograles KE, Guttman-Yassky E, Cardinale I, Lowes MA, Krueger JG: Effective treatment of psoriasis with etanercept is linked to suppression of IL-17 signaling, not immediate response TNF genes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009, 124: 1022-1010. 10.1016/j.jaci.2009.08.046. e1021-1395PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mendell JR, Campbell K, Rodino-Klapac L, Sahenk Z, Shilling C, Lewis S, Bowles D, Gray S, Li C, Galloway G, et al: Dystrophin immunity in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. N Engl J Med. 2010, 363: 1429-1437. 10.1056/NEJMoa1000228.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Surace C, Piazzolla S, Sirleto P, Digilio MC, Roberti MC, Lombardo A, D'Elia G, Tomaiuolo AC, Petrocchi S, Capolino R, et al: Mild ring 17 syndrome shares common phenotypic features irrespective of the chromosomal breakpoints location. Clin Genet. 2009, 76: 256-262. 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2009.01203.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arai S, Shibata H, Sakai M, Ninomiya H, Iwata N, Ozaki N, Fukumaki Y: Association analysis of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 and the glutamine synthetase genes (GAD2, GLUL) with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Genet. 2009, 19: 6-13. 10.1097/YPG.0b013e328311875d.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saksi J, Ijäs P, Nuotio K, Sonninen R, Soinne L, Salonen O, Saimanen E, Tuimala J, Lehtonen-Smeds EM, Kaste M, et al: Gene expression differences between stroke-associated and asymptomatic carotid plaques. J Mol Med (Berlin, Germany). 2011, 89: 1015-1026. 10.1007/s00109-011-0773-z.Google Scholar
- Tatnell PJ, Powell DJ, Hill J, Smith TS, Tew DG, Kay J: Napsins: new human aspartic proteinases. Distinction between two closely related genes. FEBS Lett. 1998, 441: 43-48. 10.1016/S0014-5793(98)01522-1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Puente XS, Gutiérrez-Fernández A, Ordóñez GR, Hillier LW, López-Otín C: Comparative genomic analysis of human and chimpanzee proteases. Genomics. 2005, 86: 638-647. 10.1016/j.ygeno.2005.07.009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ishii N, Ozaki K, Sato H, Mizuno H, Saito S, Takahashi A, Miyamoto Y, Ikegawa S, Kamatani N, Hori M, et al: Identification of a novel non-coding RNA, MIAT, that confers risk of myocardial infarction. J Hum Genet. 2006, 51: 1087-1099. 10.1007/s10038-006-0070-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ouyang W, Löhning M, Gao Z, Assenmacher M, Ranganath S, Radbruch A, Murphy KM: Stat6-independent GATA-3 autoactivation directs IL-4-independent Th2 development and commitment. Immunity. 2000, 12: 27-37. 10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80156-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chaitidis P, Billett EE, O'Donnell VB, Fajardo AB, Fitzgerald J, Kuban RJ, Ungethuem U, Kühn H: Th2 response of human peripheral monocytes involves isoform-specific induction of monoamine oxidase-A. J Immunology (Baltimore, Md: 1950). 2004, 173: 4821-4827.Google Scholar
- Kubera M, Maes M, Kenis G, Kim Y-K, Lasoń W: Effects of serotonin and serotonergic agonists and antagonists on the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6. Psychiatry Res. 2005, 134: 251-258. 10.1016/j.psychres.2004.01.014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kawaguchi T, Qin L, Shimomura T, Kondo J, Matsumoto K, Denda K, Kitamura N: Purification and cloning of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 2, a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor. J Biol Chem. 1997, 272: 27558-27564. 10.1074/jbc.272.44.27558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marlor CW, Delaria KA, Davis G, Muller DK, Greve JM, Tamburini PP: Identification and cloning of human placental bikunin, a novel serine protease inhibitor containing two Kunitz domains. J Biol Chem. 1997, 272: 12202-12208. 10.1074/jbc.272.18.12202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xu Y, Carr PD, Guss JM, Ollis DL: The crystal structure of bikunin from the inter-alpha-inhibitor complex: a serine protease inhibitor with two Kunitz domains. J Mol Biol. 1998, 276: 955-966. 10.1006/jmbi.1997.1582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Szabo R, Hobson JP, Christoph K, Kosa P, List K, Bugge TH: Regulation of cell surface protease matriptase by HAI2 is essential for placental development, neural tube closure and embryonic survival in mice. Development (Cambridge, England). 2009, 136: 2653-2663. 10.1242/dev.038430.PubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Parr C, Watkins G, Mansel RE, Jiang WG: The hepatocyte growth factor regulatory factors in human breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res: An Official J Am Assoc for Cancer Res. 2004, 10: 202-211. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-0553-3.Google Scholar
- Ahn H-J, Kim JY, Ryu K-J, Nam H-W: STAT6 activation by Toxoplasma gondii infection induces the expression of Th2 C-C chemokine ligands and B clade serine protease inhibitors in macrophage. Parasitol Res. 2009, 105: 1445-1453. 10.1007/s00436-009-1577-8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Naganuma S, Itoh H, Uchiyama S, Tanaka H, Nagaike K, Miyata S, Uchinokura S, Nuki Y, Akiyama Y, Chijiiwa K, Kataoka H: Characterization of transcripts generated from mouse hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 2 (HAI-2) and HAI-2-related small peptide (H2RSP) genes: chimeric mRNA transcribed from both HAI-2 and H2RSP genes is detected in human but not in mouse. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003, 302: 345-353. 10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00154-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eto M, Senba S, Morita F, Yazawa M: Molecular cloning of a novel phosphorylation-dependent inhibitory protein of protein phosphatase-1 (CPI17) in smooth muscle: its specific localization in smooth muscle. FEBS Lett. 1997, 410: 356-360. 10.1016/S0014-5793(97)00657-1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Groom LA, Sneddon AA, Alessi DR, Dowd S, Keyse SM: Differential regulation of the MAP, SAP and RK/p38 kinases by Pyst1, a novel cytosolic dual-specificity phosphatase. EMBO J. 1996, 15: 3621-3632.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lund R, Ahlfors H, Kainonen E, Lahesmaa A-M, Dixon C, Lahesmaa R: Identification of genes involved in the initiation of human Th1 or Th2 cell commitment. Eur J Immunol. 2005, 35: 3307-3319. 10.1002/eji.200526079.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Usui T, Preiss JC, Kanno Y, Yao ZJ, Bream JH, O'Shea JJ, Strober W: T-bet regulates Th1 responses through essential effects on GATA-3 function rather than on IFNG gene acetylation and transcription. J Exp Med. 2006, 203: 755-766. 10.1084/jem.20052165.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thedieck K, Polak P, Kim ML, Molle KD, Cohen A, Jenö P, Arrieumerlou C, Hall MN: PRAS40 and PRR5-like protein are new mTOR interactors that regulate apoptosis. PLoS One. 2007, 2: e1217-10.1371/journal.pone.0001217.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Perttilä J, Merikanto K, Naukkarinen J, Surakka I, Martin NW, Tanhuanpää K, Grimard V, Taskinen M-R, Thiele C, Salomaa V, et al: OSBPL10, a novel candidate gene for high triglyceride trait in dyslipidemic Finnish subjects, regulates cellular lipid metabolism. J Mol Med (Berlin, Germany). 2009, 87: 825-835. 10.1007/s00109-009-0490-z.Google Scholar
- Müller T, Bayer H, Myrtek D, Ferrari D, Sorichter S, Ziegenhagen MW, Zissel G, Virchow JC, Luttmann W, Norgauer J, et al: The P2Y14 receptor of airway epithelial cells: coupling to intracellular Ca2+ and IL-8 secretion. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2005, 33: 601-609. 10.1165/rcmb.2005-0181OC.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arase T, Uchida H, Kajitani T, Ono M, Tamaki K, Oda H, Nishikawa S, Kagami M, Nagashima T, Masuda H, et al: The UDP-glucose receptor P2RY14 triggers innate mucosal immunity in the female reproductive tract by inducing IL-8. J Immunology (Baltimore, Md: 1950). 2009, 182: 7074-7084. 10.4049/jimmunol.0900001.Google Scholar
- Skelton L, Cooper M, Murphy M, Platt A: Human immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells express the G protein-coupled receptor GPR105 (KIAA0001, P2Y14) and increase intracellular calcium in response to its agonist, uridine diphosphoglucose. J Immunology (Baltimore, Md: 1950). 2003, 171: 1941-1949.Google Scholar
- Scrivens M, Dickenson JM: Functional expression of the P2Y14 receptor in murine T-lymphocytes. Br J Pharmacol. 2005, 146: 435-444. 10.1038/sj.bjp.0706322.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen L, Juszczynski P, Takeyama K, Aguiar RCT, Shipp MA: Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type O truncated (PTPROt) regulates SYK phosphorylation, proximal B-cell-receptor signaling, and cellular proliferation. Blood. 2006, 108: 3428-3433. 10.1182/blood-2006-03-013821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Agnello D, Lankford CSR, Bream J, Morinobu A, Gadina M, O'Shea JJ, Frucht DM: Cytokines and transcription factors that regulate T helper cell differentiation: new players and new insights. J Clin Immunol. 2003, 23: 147-161. 10.1023/A:1023381027062.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moulian N, Bidault J, Planché C, Berrih-Aknin S: Two signaling pathways can increase fas expression in human thymocytes. Blood. 1998, 92: 1297-1307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Akimzhanov AM, Wang X, Sun J, Boehning D: T-cell receptor complex is essential for Fas signal transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010, 107: 15105-15110. 10.1073/pnas.1005419107.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nurieva RI, Chung Y, Hwang D, Yang XO, Kang HS, Ma L, Wang YH, Watowich SS, Jetten AM, Tian Q, Dong C: Generation of T follicular helper cells is mediated by interleukin-21 but independent of T helper 1, 2, or 17 cell lineages. Immunity. 2008, 29: 138-149. 10.1016/j.immuni.2008.05.009.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Torchinsky MB, Blander JM: T helper 17 cells: discovery, function, and physiological trigger. Cellular and Mole Life Sci. 2010, 67: 1407-1421. 10.1007/s00018-009-0248-3.Google Scholar
- Strengell M, Matikainen S, Siren J, Lehtonen A, Foster D, Julkunen I, Sareneva T: IL-21 in synergy with IL-15 or IL-18 enhances IFN-gamma production in human NK and T cells. J Immunol. 2003, 170: 5464-5469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jacobson NG, Szabo SJ, Weber-Nordt RM, Zhong Z, Schreiber RD, Darnell JE, Murphy KM: Interleukin 12 signaling in T helper type 1 (Th1) cells involves tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3 and Stat4. The J Experimental Med. 1995, 181: 1755-1762. 10.1084/jem.181.5.1755.Google Scholar
- Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A, Mackay CR: Chemokines and chemokine receptors in T-cell priming and Th1/Th2-mediated responses. Immunol Today. 1998, 19: 568-574. 10.1016/S0167-5699(98)01346-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bonecchi R, Bianchi G, Bordignon PP, D'Ambrosio D, Lang R, Borsatti A, Sozzani S, Allavena P, Gray PA, Mantovani A, Sinigaglia F: Differential expression of chemokine receptors and chemotactic responsiveness of type 1 T helper cells (Th1s) and Th2s. The J Experimental Med. 1998, 187: 129-134. 10.1084/jem.187.1.129.Google Scholar
- Debes GF, Diehl MC: CCL8 and skin T cells–an allergic attraction. Nat Immunol. 2011, 12: 111-112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sheikh F, Baurin VV, Lewis-Antes A, Shah NK, Smirnov SV, Anantha S, Dickensheets H, Dumoutier L, Renauld J-C, Zdanov A, et al: Cutting edge: IL-26 signals through a novel receptor complex composed of IL-20 receptor 1 and IL-10 receptor 2. J Immunology (Baltimore, Md: 1950). 2004, 172: 2006-2010.Google Scholar
- Wolk K, Kunz S, Asadullah K, Sabat R: Cutting edge: immune cells as sources and targets of the IL-10 family members?. J Immunology (Baltimore, Md: 1950). 2002, 168: 5397-5402.Google Scholar
- Miller SA, Weinmann AS: Molecular mechanisms by which T-bet regulates T-helper cell commitment. Immunol Rev. 2010, 238: 233-246. 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2010.00952.x.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kanda H, Newton R, Klein R, Morita Y, Gunn MD, Rosen SD: Autotaxin, an ectoenzyme that produces lysophosphatidic acid, promotes the entry of lymphocytes into secondary lymphoid organs. Nat Immunol. 2008, 9: 415-423.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Devadas S, Das J, Liu C, Zhang L, Roberts AI, Pan Z, Moore PA, Das G, Shi Y: Granzyme B is critical for T cell receptor-induced cell death of type 2 helper T cells. Immunity. 2006, 25: 237-247. 10.1016/j.immuni.2006.06.011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim CH, Nagata K, Butcher EC: Dendritic cells support sequential reprogramming of chemoattractant receptor profiles during naive to effector T cell differentiation. J Immunology (Baltimore, Md: 1950). 2003, 171: 152-158.Google Scholar
- Sallusto F, Mackay CR, Lanzavecchia A: The role of chemokine receptors in primary, effector, and memory immune responses. Annu Rev Immunol. 2000, 18: 593-620. 10.1146/annurev.immunol.18.1.593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lähdesmäki H, Rust AG, Shmulevich I: Probabilistic inference of transcription factor binding from multiple data sources. PLoS One. 2008, 3: e1820-10.1371/journal.pone.0001820.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wingender E, Chen X, Hehl R, Karas H, Liebich I, Matys V, Meinhardt T, Prüss M, Reuter I, Schacherer F: TRANSFAC: an integrated system for gene expression regulation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000, 28: 316-319. 10.1093/nar/28.1.316.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen H, Bieberich CJ: Structural and functional analysis of domains mediating interaction between NKX-3.1 and PDEF. J Cell Biochem. 2005, 94: 168-177. 10.1002/jcb.20297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kusy S, Gerby B, Goardon N, Gault N, Ferri F, Gérard D, Armstrong F, Ballerini P, Cayuela J-M, Baruchel A, et al: NKX3.1 is a direct TAL1 target gene that mediates proliferation of TAL1-expressing human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Exp Med. 2010, 207: 2141-2156. 10.1084/jem.20100745.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen Z, Lund R, Aittokallio T, Kosonen M, Nevalainen O, Lahesmaa R: Identification of novel IL-4/Stat6-regulated genes in T lymphocytes. J Immunology (Baltimore, Md: 1950). 2003, 171: 3627-3635.Google Scholar
- Ellis T, Gambardella L, Horcher M, Tschanz S, Capol J, Bertram P, Jochum W, Barrandon Y, Busslinger M: The transcriptional repressor CDP (Cutl1) is essential for epithelial cell differentiation of the lung and the hair follicle. Genes Dev. 2001, 15: 2307-2319. 10.1101/gad.200101.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sansregret L, Goulet B, Harada R, Wilson B, Leduy L, Bertoglio J, Nepveu A: The p110 isoform of the CDP/Cux transcription factor accelerates entry into S phase. Mol Cell Biol. 2006, 26: 2441-2455. 10.1128/MCB.26.6.2441-2455.2006.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yao X, Nie H, Rojas IC, Harriss JV, Maika SD, Gottlieb PD, Rathbun G, Tucker PW: The L2a element is a mouse CD8 silencer that interacts with MAR-binding proteins SATB1 and CDP. Mol Immunol. 2010, 48: 153-163. 10.1016/j.molimm.2010.08.014.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaul-Ghanekar R, Jalota A, Pavithra L, Tucker P, Chattopadhyay S: SMAR1 and Cux/CDP modulate chromatin and act as negative regulators of the TCRbeta enhancer (Ebeta). Nucleic Acids Res. 2004, 32: 4862-4875. 10.1093/nar/gkh807.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li S, Moy L, Pittman N, Shue G, Aufiero B, Neufeld EJ, LeLeiko NS, Walsh MJ: Transcriptional repression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene, mediated by CCAAT displacement protein/cut homolog, is associated with histone deacetylation. J Biol Chem. 1999, 274: 7803-7815. 10.1074/jbc.274.12.7803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nishio H, Walsh MJ: CCAAT displacement protein/cut homolog recruits G9a histone lysine methyltransferase to repress transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004, 101: 11257-11262. 10.1073/pnas.0401343101.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barnes B, Lubyova B, Pitha PM: On the role of IRF in host defense. J Interferon Cytokine Res: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research. 2002, 22: 59-71. 10.1089/107999002753452665.Google Scholar
- Zhu J, Paul WE: Peripheral CD4+ T-cell differentiation regulated by networks of cytokines and transcription factors. Immunol Rev. 2010, 238: 247-262. 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2010.00951.x.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Elser B, Lohoff M, Kock S, Giaisi M, Kirchhoff S, Krammer PH, Li-Weber M: IFN-gamma represses IL-4 expression via IRF-1 and IRF-2. Immunity. 2002, 17: 703-712. 10.1016/S1074-7613(02)00471-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hu C-M, Jang SY, Fanzo JC, Pernis AB: Modulation of T cell cytokine production by interferon regulatory factor-4. J Biol Chem. 2002, 277: 49238-49246. 10.1074/jbc.M205895200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tominaga N, Ohkusu-Tsukada K, Udono H, Abe R, Matsuyama T, Yui K: Development of Th1 and not Th2 immune responses in mice lacking IFN-regulatory factor-4. Int Immunol. 2003, 15: 1-10. 10.1093/intimm/dxg001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee C-G, Hwang W, Maeng K-E, Kwon H-K, So J-S, Sahoo A, Lee SH, Park ZY, Im S-H: IRF4 regulates IL-10 gene expression in CD4(+) T cells through differential nuclear translocation. Cell Immunol. 2011, 268: 97-104. 10.1016/j.cellimm.2011.02.008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Laver T, Nozell SE, Benveniste EN: IFN-beta-mediated inhibition of IL-8 expression requires the ISGF3 components Stat1, Stat2, and IRF-9. J Interferon Cytokine Res: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research. 2008, 28: 13-23. 10.1089/jir.2007.0062.Google Scholar
- Lund RJ, Chen Z, Scheinin J, Lahesmaa R: Early target genes of IL-12 and STAT4 signaling in Th cells. J Immunol. 2004, 172: 6775-6782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lazarevic V, Chen X, Shim J-H, Hwang E-S, Jang E, Bolm AN, Oukka M, Kuchroo VK, Glimcher LH: T-bet represses T(H)17 differentiation by preventing Runx1-mediated activation of the gene encoding RORγt. Nat Immunol. 2011, 12: 96-104. 10.1038/ni.1969.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Toh M-L, Kawashima M, Hot A, Miossec P, Miossec P: Role of IL-17 in the Th1 systemic defects in rheumatoid arthritis through selective IL-12Rbeta2 inhibition. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010, 69: 1562-1567. 10.1136/ard.2009.111757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Manel N, Unutmaz D, Littman DR: The differentiation of human T(H)-17 cells requires transforming growth factor-beta and induction of the nuclear receptor RORgammat. Nat Immunol. 2008, 9: 641-649. 10.1038/ni.1610.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bending D, Newland S, Krejcí A, Phillips JM, Bray S, Cooke A: Epigenetic changes at Il12rb2 and Tbx21 in relation to plasticity behavior of Th17 cells. J Immunology (Baltimore, Md: 1950). 2011, 186: 3373-3382. 10.4049/jimmunol.1003216.Google Scholar
- Jin H, Sperka T, Herrlich P, Morrison H: Tumorigenic transformation by CPI-17 through inhibition of a merlin phosphatase. Nature. 2006, 442: 576-579. 10.1038/nature04856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamashita M, Kimura M, Kubo M, Shimizu C, Tada T, Perlmutter RM, Nakayama T: T cell antigen receptor-mediated activation of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway controls interleukin 4 receptor function and type-2 helper T cell differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999, 96: 1024-1029. 10.1073/pnas.96.3.1024.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamashita M, Shinnakasu R, Asou H, Kimura M, Hasegawa A, Hashimoto K, Hatano N, Ogata M, Nakayama T: Ras-ERK MAPK cascade regulates GATA3 stability and Th2 differentiation through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005, 280: 29409-29419. 10.1074/jbc.M502333200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tripathi P, Sahoo N, Ullah U, Kallionpaa H, Suneja A, Lahesmaa R, Rao KV: A novel mechanism for ERK-dependent regulation of IL4 transcription during human Th2-cell differentiation. Immunol Cell Biol. 2011Google Scholar
- Bermudez O, Pagès G, Gimond C: The dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatases: critical roles in development and cancer. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010, 299: C189-202. 10.1152/ajpcell.00347.2009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reffas S, Schlegel W: Compartment-specific regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by ERK-dependent and non-ERK-dependent inductions of MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-3 and MKP-1 in differentiating P19 cells. Biochem J. 2000, 352: 701-708. 10.1042/0264-6021:3520701.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schweppe RE, Cheung TH, Ahn NG: Global gene expression analysis of ERK5 and ERK1/2 signaling reveals a role for HIF-1 in ERK5-mediated responses. J Biol Chem. 2006, 281: 20993-21003. 10.1074/jbc.M604208200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marchetti S, Gimond C, Chambard JC, Touboul T, Roux D, Pouyssegur J, Pages G: Extracellular signal-regulated kinases phosphorylate mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 3/DUSP6 at serines 159 and 197, two sites critical for its proteasomal degradation. Mol Cell Biol. 2005, 25: 854-864. 10.1128/MCB.25.2.854-864.2005.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakamura K, Abarzua F, Kodama J, Hongo A, Nasu Y, Kumon H, Hiramatsu Y: Expression of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitors (HAI-1 and HAI-2) in ovarian cancer. Int J Oncol. 2009, 34: 345-353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bergum C, List K: Loss of the matriptase inhibitor HAI-2 during prostate cancer progression. Prostate. 2010, 70: 1422-1428. 10.1002/pros.21177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dong W, Chen X, Xie J, Sun P, Wu Y: Epigenetic inactivation and tumor suppressor activity of HAI-2/SPINT2 in gastric cancer. Int J Cancer J Int du Cancer. 2010, 127: 1526-1534.Google Scholar
- Ito W, Kanehiro A, Matsumoto K, Hirano A, Ono K, Maruyama H, Kataoka M, Nakamura T, Gelfand EW, Tanimoto M: Hepatocyte growth factor attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and remodeling. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2005, 32: 268-280. 10.1165/rcmb.2004-0058OC.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ito W, Takeda M, Tanabe M, Kihara J, Kato H, Chiba T, Yamaguchi K, Ueki S, Kanehiro A, Kayaba H, Chihara J: Anti-allergic inflammatory effects of hepatocyte growth factor. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008, 146 (1): 82-87. 10.1159/000126067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beemiller P, Krummel MF: Mediation of T-cell activation by actin meshworks. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology. 2010, 2: a002444-10.1101/cshperspect.a002444.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thauland TJ, Koguchi Y, Wetzel SA, Dustin ML, Parker DC: Th1 and Th2 cells form morphologically distinct immunological synapses. J Immunology (Baltimore, Md: 1950). 2008, 181: 393-399.Google Scholar
- Bakshi R, Mehta AK, Sharma R, Maiti S, Pasha S, Brahmachari V: Characterization of a human SWI2/SNF2 like protein hINO80: Demonstration of catalytic and DNA binding activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006, 339: 313-320. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.10.206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen HL, Li CF, Grigorian A, Tian WQ, Demetriou M: T Cell Receptor Signaling Co-regulates Multiple Golgi Genes to Enhance N-Glycan Branching. J Biol Chem. 2009, 284: 32454-32461. 10.1074/jbc.M109.023630.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Toscano MA, Bianco GA, Ilarregui JM, Croci DO, Correale J, Hernandez JD, Zwirner NW, Poirier F, Riley EM, Baum LG, Rabinovich GA: Differential glycosylation of T(H)1, T(H)2 and T-H-17 effector cells selectively regulates susceptibility to cell death. Nat Immunol. 2007, 8: 825-834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yssel H, de Vries JE, Koken M, Van Blitterswijk W, Spits H: Serum-free medium for generation and propagation of functional human cytotoxic and helper T cell clones. J Immunol Methods. 1984, 72: 219-227. 10.1016/0022-1759(84)90450-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rasmussen CE, Williams CKI, Books24x7 Inc: Gaussian processes for machine learning. In Adaptive computation and machine learning. 2006, Cambridge, Mass: MIT PressGoogle Scholar
- Becker HW, Riordan J: THE ARITHMETIC OF BELL AND STIRLING NUMBERS. Am J Math. 1948, 70: 385-394. 10.2307/2372336.Google Scholar
- Edgar R, Domrachev M, Lash AE: Gene Expression Omnibus: NCBI gene expression and hybridization array data repository. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002, 30: 207-210. 10.1093/nar/30.1.207.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.