Application of experimentally verified transcription factor binding sites models for computational analysis of ChIP-Seq data
© Levitsky et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 7 June 2013
Accepted: 25 January 2014
Published: 29 January 2014
ChIP-Seq is widely used to detect genomic segments bound by transcription factors (TF), either directly at DNA binding sites (BSs) or indirectly via other proteins. Currently, there are many software tools implementing different approaches to identify TFBSs within ChIP-Seq peaks. However, their use for the interpretation of ChIP-Seq data is usually complicated by the absence of direct experimental verification, making it difficult both to set a threshold to avoid recognition of too many false-positive BSs, and to compare the actual performance of different models.
Using ChIP-Seq data for FoxA2 binding loci in mouse adult liver and human HepG2 cells we compared FoxA binding-site predictions for four computational models of two fundamental classes: pattern matching based on existing training set of experimentally confirmed TFBSs (oPWM and SiteGA) and de novo motif discovery (ChIPMunk and diChIPMunk). To properly select prediction thresholds for the models, we experimentally evaluated affinity of 64 predicted FoxA BSs using EMSA that allows safely distinguishing sequences able to bind TF. As a result we identified thousands of reliable FoxA BSs within ChIP-Seq loci from mouse liver and human HepG2 cells. It was found that the performance of conventional position weight matrix (PWM) models was inferior with the highest false positive rate. On the contrary, the best recognition efficiency was achieved by the combination of SiteGA & diChIPMunk/ChIPMunk models, properly identifying FoxA BSs in up to 90% of loci for both mouse and human ChIP-Seq datasets.
The experimental study of TF binding to oligonucleotides corresponding to predicted sites increases the reliability of computational methods for TFBS-recognition in ChIP-Seq data analysis. Regarding ChIP-Seq data interpretation, basic PWMs have inferior TFBS recognition quality compared to the more sophisticated SiteGA and de novo motif discovery methods. A combination of models from different principles allowed identification of proper TFBSs.
KeywordsChIP-Seq EMSA Transcription factor binding sites FoxA SiteGA PWM Transcription factor binding model Dinucleotide frequencies
Identification of transcription regulatory elements in a genome is an actively evolving topic in modern molecular biology. The major class of these elements is represented by transcription factor (TF) binding sites (TFBSs), short DNA segments of 10-20 bp specifically recognized by TFs. Modern high-throughput techniques, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) or by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq), allow genome-scale mapping of TF occupancy in a given cell type and state . To date, thousands of binding loci for a large number of TFs have been revealed for various cell types . However, both ChIP-Seq and ChIP-chip technologies are not able to distinguish direct TF binding to DNA from indirect binding mediated by other chromatin proteins including other TFs bound to cognate DNA sites (the so-called tethered or “piggy back” binding) [1, 3]. Prediction of the genome-wide TF binding landscape, i.e. identification of the entire set of TFBSs existing in a particular genome irrespective to the cell type and state, is also unlikely to be done without proper TFBS modeling in silico. Furthermore, ChIP-Seq identifies exact locations of TFBSs only indirectly and cannot discriminate between closely spaced multiple sites within DNA segments of hundreds of base pairs .
To identify TFBSs in a given sequence one applies computational methods for their recognition. A myriad of such methods exists today, falling into two main classes [5, 6]. The first class is based on pattern matching, also called motif finding. In this case, the TFBS recognition model is constructed on an independent training set of TFBS sequences obtained from conventional gene-by-gene experimental studies. The pattern is often represented as a positional weight matrix (PWM) which assumes that nucleotides in BS sequence additively and independently contribute to the total binding energy . The PWM is widely used for TFBSs recognition in genomic sequences, e.g. to interpret ChIP-Seq data. A number of information resources contain the ready-to-use TFBS matrices, namely, TRANSFAC , JASPAR , ARTSITE , HOCOMOCO  etc. The performance of conventional PWMs can be improved if dependencies between adjacent positions are taken into account, e.g. using so-called dinucleotide PWMs . The next improvement of this approach is a proper selection of matrix length, i.e. construction of optimized PWM (oPWM) [12, 13]. More sophisticated and much less commonly used methods do not include “the additivity assumption”, i.e. nucleotides in different positions may depend on each other [14, 15]. Among these methods is our previously developed SiteGA, well-proven in recognition of various TFBSs .
The second class of methods is oriented towards de novo pattern detection, and referred to as motif discovery, also often utilizing PWMs as the TFBS model. Initially, motif discovery was proposed to identify TFBSs in promoter sequences of co-regulated or orthologous genes. Although motif discovery algorithms have been shown to work successfully in bacteria and yeast, they performed significantly worse in higher organisms . However, the motif discovery approach has become of extremely high value with the emergence of ChIP-chip/ChIP-Seq technologies [17, 18]. Currently, many variations of such methods exist, some of them are presented in well-known resources. ChIPMunk  and diChIPMunk  belong to this class. Using the basic PWM model ChIPMunk performed nicely in several independent benchmarks [21, 22], including the recent one of the DREAM consortium . diChIPMunk uses the same engine as ChIPMunk to produce dinucleotide PWMs.
It is of great interest to compare the performance of the motif discovery and motif finding approaches applied to the same experimental data. However, no such studies have been carried out until now. Moreover, a comparative analysis of the advantages and shortcomings of different methods is hampered by the lack of direct experimental verification of predicted TFBSs.
Using a FoxA2 ChIP-Seq data for mouse adult liver chromatin  and human hepatoma cell line chromatin  we conducted a comparative assessment of oPWM and SiteGA (pattern-matching models), ChIPMunk, and diChIPMunk (pattern-detection models), which was accompanied by experimental verification.
FoxA2 is a member of the FoxA subfamily of winged helix/forkhead box (Fox) transcription factors playing important roles at different stages of mammalian life cycle, including early development, organogenesis, and metabolism and homeostasis in the adult . FoxA2 was shown to be a pioneer transcription factor , thus indirect (mediated by other DNA-binding proteins) binding of FoxA2 to chromatin should not be a major event. With the independent human and mouse liver ChIP-Seq datasets available FoxA2 is one of the most convenient TFs to compare different computer approaches for prediction of TFBSs.
Identification of FoxA binding sites in promoter ChIP-Seq loci
Initially, to compare the performance of pattern matching and pattern detection approaches for TFBS prediction in the context of ChIP-Seq data, we applied oPWM and SiteGA (as representatives of the former class) as well as ChIPMunk and diChIPMunk (as representatives of the latter class) to analyze a dataset of 4455 FoxA2-binding loci (ChIP-Seq peaks with read coverage of at least 15) in mouse adult liver chromatin .
Experimental verification of predicted FoxA binding sites by EMSA
Rough estimate of TFBS affinities relative to that of TTR oligonucleotide were calculated (further referred to as the EMSA scores listed in Additional file 1: Table S1). It was found, that the distribution of estimated the EMSA scores for 64 tested sites was essentially continuous (Figure 2B; Additional file 2: Figure S1), which agrees with the previous data for other TFs [29, 30]. Based on the experimental results, all the studied sequences were divided into three groups: a) non-sites, EMSA scores below 0.25; b) weak sites, EMSA scores from 0.25 to 0.75 and c) strong sites, EMSA scores above 0.75 (Figure 1). Thus, the group of non-sites consisted of sequences whose ability to bind to GST-FKH-FoxA2 was not significantly different from the unrelated sequence.
Comparison of the predictions and the experimental data are shown in Figure 1. Most of the non-sites receive low scores from all the models (the bottom left corner in the scatterplots, Figure 1). In the case of the strong and the weak sites the picture is different. As expected, models of the same class (pairs oPWM/SiteGA and ChIPMunk/diChIPMunk) predicted sites concentrating in the top right corner of the scatterplot (Figure 1A,B), i.e. the predictions were mostly consistent. At the same time, predictions were less consistent for motif discovery versus motif-finding approaches. There were many sites with high scores from one model and low scores from another (Figure 1C-F), e.g. SiteGA versus ChIPMunk predictions (Figure 1D). These models utilized different training sets, and algorithms (SiteGA accounts for mutual dependencies between arbitrary positions, while ChIPMunk does not). So, a combination of such fundamentally different models can be the most effective in analyzing genome-wide ChIP-Seq data.
For further analysis we selected EMSA score cutoff of 0.25, which allowed determination of the thresholds for prediction models on a common basis (Figure 2). These are 0.870, 0.848, 0.710 and 0.703 for ChIPMunk, diChIPMunk, SiteGA and oPWM, respectively. For each model, we selected the threshold value as the highest score for the subset of non-sites (Figure 1).
Identification of FoxA binding sites in genome-wide ChIP-Seq data
The results show the high efficiency of the SiteGA model, as well as both participants from pattern-detection class (ChIPMunk and diChIPMunk). However, since the latter models were trained on the same data as used for the performance evaluation, the correct comparative assessment requires an additional independent control ChIP-Seq dataset.
Application of TFBS models to the control FoxA ChIP-Seq dataset
The dataset described in  was taken as an independent control and contained 4367 FoxA2-binding loci, with read coverage of at least 10. In this dataset SiteGA, ChIPMunk, diChIPMunk and oPWM models recognized 5781 sites in 77.6% of peaks, 5629 sites in 81.5% of peaks, 4892 sites in 76.6% of peaks, 2394 sites in 43.0% of peaks respectively, showing almost the same performance as on Wederell’s data . Note that oPWM again had the worst prediction rate.
For all pairwise combinations the dependence of the fraction of recognized peaks from the peak height cut-off demonstrated a non-monotonic behavior, with significant growth from approximately 50% of recognized peaks at a cutoff value of 4 and a nearly uniform distribution at cutoff values of 10 and higher. Basically, this means that more erroneous peaks or weak sites are detected near the lower peak height of 4, supporting the choice of the peak height cutoff value of 10 for our study.
The models from the same class (two pattern matching or two pattern detection models) poorly complemented each other, giving a moderate rise in the number of peaks with recognized BSs for the ChIPMunk/diChIPMunk pair (joint recognition 85.0% vs. 81.5/76.6% for separate models, respectively; Figure 4B) and almost no effect for oPWM/SiteGA as SiteGA managed to recognize almost every peak detected by oPWM (joint recognition 78.2% vs. 77.6/43.0% for separate models, respectively; Figure 4A).
On the contrary, the combination of pattern-matching and pattern-detection models showed a substantial increase in the number of peaks with recognized BSs. Among all combinations the best again were SiteGA/ChIPMunk and SiteGA/diChIPMunk, with 90.7% and 89.1% peaks recognized by at least one model out of a pair, respectively (Figure 4C,D). More than a half of detected sites were recognized by two models simultaneously: 58.1% of sites (4679) and 58.9% (4196) for SiteGA/ChIPMunk and diChIPMunk/SiteGA, respectively (Figure 4C,D, red). The fractions of peaks solely detected by a particular model were 9.1% for SiteGA and 13.1% for ChIPMunk (Figure 4C, blue and green). For another combination, the respective fractions were 11.5% for SiteGA and 12.5% for diChIPMunk (Figure 4D, blue and green). The fractions of simultaneously detected peaks with non-overlapped sites were 8.9% and 8.4% (see Figure 4C,D, orange). A more detailed analysis of SiteGA/ChIPMunk and diChIPMunk/SiteGA results again shows that the majority of peaks contained more than one site, 54.0% and 50.1% respectively. These estimates are very similar to those computed above for Wederell’s ChIP-Seq data .
To get an estimate for the fraction of simultaneously detected peaks with non-overlapping sites expected by chance we performed a tenfold simulation on a random 1st order Markov chain background set that was generated by shuffling full-length peaks. We count observed and expected fractions of peaks with non-overlapped sites among all peaks detected by two models. For the SiteGA/ChIPMunk pair the expected fraction was 14.1% and observed one was 23.0% (p < 5E-12 according to the χ2 test for a 2×2 contingency table). This provides evidence that these non-overlapping predictions are likely nonrandom and are due to heterogeneity of the FoxA BSs sequences and their preference to form homotypic TFBS clusters.
Thus, usage of a pair of different models allowed both an increase in the number of peaks with precisely positioned sites, and identification of multiple sites within a single peak. The latter is quite important, since homotypic clusters of TFBSs are often found in the gene regulatory regions, underlying a number of mechanistic advantages [36, 37]. These may include favoring high-affinity cooperative TF binding and lateral diffusion of TF binding along regulatory regions, or simply increasing of the local TF concentration in the vicinity of these regions and thereby increase the probability of functional interactions [38–40].
Note that oPWM can also provide a benefit when SiteGA is not available. For example, oPWM slightly increased the number of peaks with detected BSs (4.6% only oPWM, 43.1% only ChIPMunk, and 5.9% only oPWM, 39.5% only diChIPMunk, Figure 4E,F: blue and green) and the number of peaks with non-overlapping sites detected by different models (8.6% and 8.3%, Figure 4E,F, orange).
Comparison of constructed and existing FoxA TFBS models
We suspect that several factors are crucial in explaining performance of different models (Figure 5): (a) the training data-set, either ChIP-Seq derived or not; (b) a visible improvement for conventional PWMs if dinucleotide statistics are used along with extension of a matrix length (diChIPMunk vs. ChIPMunk, oPWM vs. Transfac PWM M01012); (c) accounting for possible distant dependencies (SiteGA vs. oPWM).
Computational methods of TFBS recognition provide important tools to analyze ChIP-Seq data [1, 46]. Many different tools were presented for motif discovery in ChIP-Seq data, including MEME-ChIP , RSAT peak-motifs , Dimont . Yet, it is commonly PWMs from JASPAR and TRANSFAC that are applied for the approval of ChIP-Seq data. A few attempts were made to properly train complex models .
However, in the absence of additional experimental verification of TFBS models, it is difficult to estimate key model parameters, such as recognition thresholds, which would correctly separate true-positive from false-positive predictions. Ignorance of these thresholds, in turn, greatly complicates both the interpretation of ChIP-Seq data and the performance comparison of TFBS-prediction methods.
Application of several models for TFBS prediction in this study allowed us to resolve two important issues: (a) whether advanced pattern match models (oPWM, SiteGA), if properly trained on a limited curated TFBS set, can compete with pattern discovery models (ChIPMunk, diChIPMunk) trained on ChIP-Seq data; and (b) whether these advanced models can complement each other or commonly applied PWMs (four additional representatives from JASPAR and TRANSFAC were tested).
Using FoxA BSs as a case study, we have applied EMSA to determine thresholds for eight models of TFBS recognition. The use of these thresholds in the analysis of ChIP-Seq profiles for FoxA2 in adult mouse liver  and in human HepG2 cells  allowed us to reliably identify thousands of FoxA BSs within ChIP-Seq peaks and to conduct an adequate comparison of the computational models studied.
First of all, in some cases models for TFBS recognition are able to find trustworthy sites only in a small subset of peaks, e.g. 29% for TRANSFAC M01012 and 43% for oPWM (Figure 4A). This fraction is not what one should expect from a TRANSFAC model, and only performing the EMSA experiment allowed us to compute an accurate estimate. Application of such models for finding TFBSs in a major subset of ChIP-Seq peaks would require too low threshold value giving too many false positives. Hence, the threshold choice is the key point for getting trustworthy TFBS-recognition results from ChIP-Seq pipelines. It is important for different tasks, e.g. identification of reliable TFBSs in ChIP-Seq data or studying the ratio of direct and indirect protein binding to chromatin. While EMSA was used here for selecting thresholds, there could be other, less labor-intensive approaches, for example fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) . It is noteworthy that once experimental verification is done for a particular protein, it could be re-used for defining the thresholds for any corresponding TFBS model and interpreting any ChIP-seq experiment for this protein, as we have demonstrated on the independent human FoxA2 ChIP-Seq dataset .
We conclude that models derived from ChIP-Seq usually outperformed the others. The important exception is SiteGA, most probably due to its more complex algorithm of information extraction and recognition. But this outperformance does not diminish the value of the models trained on independent data, which provide a way to verify the results obtained from a ChIP-Seq pipeline.
We have confirmed the supremacy of dinucleotide statistics for the TFBS models, showing its advantages for both classes of methods. An important component of this advantage comes from the informative data in the flanking regions of the TFBS “core” sequence. The consequence is typically longer matrix length, e.g. TRANSFAC M01012 (18 nt) vs. oPWM (32 nt) and ChIPMunk (20 nt) vs. diChIPMunk (28 nt).
The models based on different principles complement each other. Combined use of the models allowed better identification of FoxA sites in corresponding ChIP-Seq peaks. The best results for BS prediction in ChIP-Seq data were achieved by model combinations, e.g. SiteGA plus diChIPMunk, successfully identifying up to 90% of FoxA BS-containing loci in both the mouse and human ChIP-Seq data.
Nowadays ChIP-Seq is the gold standard for studying TF-chromatin interactions in vivo. Detailed analysis of TFBS in ChIP-Seq data requires validated computational TFBS-recognition tools. The choice of the appropriate thresholds for TFBS models is one of the key steps that has been often underappreciated. We carried out an experimental study of FoxA binding to oligonucleotides, corresponding to predicted sites. This allowed us to determine the thresholds for several ChIP-Seq derived and conventional models, improving their ability to predict TFBSs. This also allowed us to compare models accurately using the independent control ChIP-Seq dataset, and conclude that (a) the weak ability to detect sites properly; (b) although pattern-discovery models derived from ChIP-Seq in general are better than conventionally derived pattern-match models, the latter valuably complement the former in annotation of ChIP-Seq data; (c) integration of different models allows detecting reliable sites in up to 90% of ChIP-Seq loci.
Datasets and site prediction tools
Two publicly available ChIP-Seq datasets for FoxA2 TF were used in this study: for adult mouse liver  (4455 mouse loci having base coverage no less than 15) and for human HepG2 cells (4367 human loci with base coverage no less than 10) . The sequences were extracted from the mm8 and hg18 genome assemblies.
To train the pattern-matching models we gathered the set of 53 known BSs (Additional file 1: Table S2) of FoxA family TFs. The sequences were extracted from the TRRD database  and by manual literature mining. The selected BSs were confirmed by at least one of the following methods: (1) DNase I footprinting using purified protein, (2) electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) with purified protein, and (3) EMSA with nuclear extract and specific antibodies.
Sequences were aligned relative to the centrally located pattern TRTTTRYH (R = A/G, Y = C/T, H = A/C/G)  (Additional file 1: Table S2). The set of aligned sequences was then used as the training set for the optimized PWM (oPWM) and SiteGA models . The construction of oPWM included the search for the optimal matrix length according to a resampling leave-one-out cross-validation test (Additional file 2: Figure S3). The SiteGA model takes into account statistical features of a binding site context reflecting putative structural interactions within the core and flanking regions of the site. It uses a genetic algorithm with a discriminant function of locally positioned dinucleotide frequencies. The performance test showed that the SiteGA model slightly outperformed oPWM (Additional file 2: Figure S4).
ChIPMunk  is a fast heuristic DNA motif discovery tool, which employs a greedy approach accompanied by bootstrapping. It is able to properly use the ChIP-Seq base coverage profile (the “peak shape”), producing high quality motifs as shown in several independent benchmark studies [21–23, 53]. ChIPMunk searches for the gapless multiple local alignment with the highest Kullback Discrete Information Content (KDIC) , under the common assumption of independence for neighboring nucleotides. An improved version of the algorithm (diChIPMunk ), uses a dinucleotide alphabet of 16 letters and the TFBS model accounting for the dependence between nucleotides in neighboring binding-site positions. A criterion for the alignment optimality, Kullback Dinucleotide Discrete Information Content (KDDIC), was constructed in the same way as KDIC using a dinucleotides alphabet. The matrix lengths for ChIPMunk and diChIPMunk were computed by the jack-knife optimization procedure similar to that for oPWM . For ChIPMunk, diChIPMunk and oPWM matrix scores were rescaled as described for oPWM . ChIPMunk trained on 4455 loci  resulted in 20 nt mono- and 28nt dinucleotide matrices (Additional file 2: Figure S5) which were in a good agreement with the TRTTTRYH pattern, determined from our training set as well as with the known FoxA binding consensus [54, 55].
Plasmid construction and purification of GST fusion protein
The FKH DNA-binding domain of FoxA2 (nt 432–869) was amplified from rat genomic DNA by PCR using primers DBD-FoxA2_f (5′-GCGGAATTCCGCTCGGGACCCCAAGACGTA-3′, Eco RI site is underlined) and DBD-FoxA2_r (5′-GCGCTCGAGTCCCCGAGCTGAACCTGA-3′, Xho I site is underlined). The PCR product was then digested with Xho I and Eco RI, and cloned into the same sites of pGEX-4 T-1 vector (Pharmacia). The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21 cells by electroporation. Expression of GST-fused FKH domain of FoxA2 protein (GST-FKH-FoxA2) was induced by incubation with 0.1 mM isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside for 3 h at 30°C. The GST-FKH-FoxA2 protein was purified using a glutathione-sepharose (Sigma) column according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The purity and size of the eluted protein were evaluated by separation on SDS-polyacrylamide gels and Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining.
The double-stranded synthetic oligonucleotide probes (containing predicted FoxA BSs) used for competition EMSAs are listed in Additional file 1: Table S1. A double-stranded TTR oligonucleotide containing a strong FoxA binding site from the transthyretin promoter  was labeled by filling-in the sticky ends with Klenow enzyme and [α-32P]dATP and used as DNA probe in EMSAs. In the competitive experiments, 2, 5 and 20 ng of unlabelled double-stranded oligonucleotide were added concurrently with 1 ng of 32P-labeled TTR probe to the reaction mixtures containing 25 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), 150 mM KCl, 0.2 mM EDTA, 0.2 mM EGTA, 10% glycerol, 1 mM dithiothreitol and 3 μg of GST-FKH-FoxA2 protein and allowed to incubate on ice for 15 min. Each gel run was supplemented with TTR self-competition as a positive control and a competition with PPAR oligonucleotide in order to control for non-specific binding. Immediately following the incubation, the bound complexes were separated from the free probe by electrophoresis on 4% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels in 0.5× Tris-borate-EDTA buffer for 40 min at 4°C. After electrophoresis, the gels were dried and visualized by autoradiography on Retina medical x-ray film. Band intensities were detected and quantified using a Gel-Doc imaging system and Quantity One software (Bio-Rad). The respective concentration-response curves for each cold competitor were subjected to log-transformation and linear regression and resulting slope values were normalized to that of positive control (TTR self-competition) to achieve a rough estimate of the relative FoxA2-binding strength to the corresponding oligonucleotide (EMSA score, Additional file 2: Figure S1). For all models the threshold for “non-sites” was set at EMSA score 0.25 based on the observed technical error multiplied by 1.5.
This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants 12-04-33112 to VGL, 12-04-01736-а to DYO; 13-04-92710_IND_A to VJM); Dynasty Foundation Fellowship (to IVK); the Program 6.6 on “Molecular and Cell Biology” from the Presidium of RAS.
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