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Table 1 Biological processes identified by PANTHER [23] as being significantly over-represented (p < 0.05) in the 157-transcript sex-specific SAM-list compared to the NCBI human reference gene list.

From: Disorders of sex development expose transcriptional autonomy of genetic sex and androgen-programmed hormonal sex in human blood leukocytes

Biological process Detected number of genes in SAM list Expected number of genes based on NCBI reference list p-value
Extracellular matrix protein-mediated signaling 4 0.29 0.000239
Cell adhesion-mediated signaling 8 1.8 0.000493
Cell communication 15 5.77 0.000674
Chromatin packaging and remodeling 6 1.13 0.00101
Cell cycle 13 4.8 0.00108
Mitosis 7 1.82 0.00246
Chromosome segregation 4 0.58 0.0028
Cell adhesion 9 2.96 0.00303
Embryogenesis 4 0.67 0.0048
Cell structure 9 3.27 0.00575
Gametogenesis 5 1.15 0.00614
Cell structure and motility 12 5.46 0.00878
Blood clotting 3 0.44 0.00993
Developmental processes 18 10.24 0.0134
Stress response 4 0.95 0.0157
mRNA transcription 3 9.11 0.0166
Receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway 4 1 0.0187
Protein modification 11 5.5 0.0225
Cell proliferation and differentiation 10 4.89 0.0253
DNA metabolism 5 1.71 0.0294
Protein metabolism and modification 22 14.46 0.0294
Signal transduction 24 16.21 0.0305
Lipid, fatty acid and steroid metabolism 8 3.66 0.0313
Protein phosphorylation 7 3.14 0.0389
Other homeostasis activities 2 0.33 0.0432
NO mediated signal transduction 1 0.05 0.0465
DNA repair 3 0.8 0.0474
Immunity and defense 11 6.27 0.05