Determination of energy parameters. A) Diagram of the algorithm utilized in the determination of proton translocation stoichiometry and NGAM. A range of possible H+/2e- values for both NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome reductase and NGAM values are iterated by the algorithm so that the "error" (E) between predicted and experimentally determined yields (Y) is minimized. The model was constrained with a fixed GAM and growth rates ≤ 0.04 h-1 to match actual conditions. B) Representation of errors between model predictions and experimental data. The lowest errors highlighted in red. C) Comparison between predicted (black bars) and experimental (gray bars) yields. Values are presented as ratios, with experimental yields set at 100%. Yields were obtained from cultures in the following conditions: 10 mM acetate/40 mM fumarate; 56 mM ferric citrate; 20 mM acetate/10 mM Fe(III)NTA. The patterned columns represent the validation data by growth on fumarate as the sole substrate (30 mM). Values are presented as ratios, with experimental yield set at 100%.