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Table 2 Molecular dates estimated for the TMRCA and founder of Malagasy haplogroups M23, M23a and M23b from coding region information.

From: A new deep branch of eurasian mtDNA macrohaplogroup M reveals additional complexity regarding the settlement of Madagascar

  Coding Region nt577-nt16022 Synonymous Mutations
Haplogroup n ρ σ Mutation rate TMRCA 95% CI Founder age 95% CI ρ σ Mutation rate TMRCA 95% CI Founder age 95% CI
M23 5 1.8 0.6 (1) 9,300 3,200-15,300 65,800 49,700-81,900 1.2 0.49 (2) 8,100 1,600-14,600 62,200 44,200-80,200
          1.2 0.49 (3) 9,400 1,900-17,000 72,500 51,500-93,500
M23a 1 2 1.41 (1) 10,300 0-24,400    1 1 (2) 6,800 0-20,000   
          1 1 (3) 7,600 0-23,300   
M23b 4 0.75 0.43 (1) 3,900 0-8,200    0.25 0.25 (2) 1,700 0-5,000   
          0.25 0.25 (3) 2,000 0-5,800   
  1. Mutation rate references: (1) One substitution per 5,139 years [56]; (2) One synonymous transition per 6,764 years [36]; (3) One synonymous mutation (transition or transversion) per 7,884 years [35]. Founder Age: ρ = 12,8; σ = 1.6 with the Mishmar and colleagues approach [56], and ρ = 9.2; σ = 1.36 with the Kivisild and colleagues [36] and Soares and colleagues [35] approaches. TMRCA, 95% confidence intervals (CI), and founder age are given in years.