Chronic ectopic activation of the IMD-pathway in the salivary glands only had a significant effect on growth and body length of the animals. Adult males, where PGRP-LC is ectopically expressed in the salivary gland have an approximately 10% reduced body length if compared with the parental line (A, B). A similar reduction can be seen in the pupal length of both types of animals (C, D). Regarding the lengths of isolated salivary glands from the corresponding animals, these differences are even more pronounced (E, F). For A, C, E, median values of at least 20 measurements +/- SEM. Statistically significant differences are marked by an asterik (p < 0.05).