Hierarchical clustering showing a similar expression profile in all patients with AZFc deletions and in four patients with idiopathic infertility. In the figure, all the relevant genes are grouped according to their expression values shown as log ratios (ratios are: gene expression value of the pathological testis divided by the value of a normal testis and values of the three samples with normal spermatogenesis divided by the home-made RNA universal). Each row corresponds to one gene, each column to different 26 microarray experiments. The quantitative changes in gene expression across all the samples are represented in color: red indicates overexpressed genes, and green indicates downregulated genes. Black bars indicate no changes in expression. Missing data points are represented as gray bars. Different colors of top labels indicate different testis phenotypes. (Pink= idiopathic SCOS; red = AZFc microdeletion with SCOS phenotype; green = idiopathic HS; blue = AZFc microdeletion with HS phenotype; purple = normal testis; R= replica).