Gene rearrangements of the Panonychus citri mitochondrial genome. Only protein coding genes (PCGs) and ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) are marked, whereas transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) are not denoted because they are highly complex. Green boxes represent genes with the same relative position as in the arthropod ground pattern, Limulus polyphemus. Blue color indicates translocations, only, whereas yellow color denotes translocations and inversions, combined. Horizontal lines combine adjacent genes, which are probably subject to a joint inversion. tRNA genes are abbreviated using the one-letter amino acid code, with L1 = CUN; L2 = UUR; S1 = AGN; S2 = UCN. All genes are transcribed from left to right except those underlined to indicate an opposite transcriptional orientation. Genes are not drawn to scale and non-coding regions are not shown. PCR fragments (a-n) used to amplify the whole genome are also shown.