Pathways affected toward TCA cycle. Pathways involved in metabolisms of serine, alanine, proline, lysine, and arginine toward TCA cycle for ATP and NAD(P)H regeneration are significantly affected by HMF challenge. Bolded letters and arrowed lines indicate the levels of expressions and pathways are statistically significant. Enhanced expressions and pathways are in green and repressed in red. Black letters and arrowed lines indicate normal expressions and pathways.