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Table 3 Biological functions of the 10 most up- and down-regulated genes

From: Genome-wide differential gene expression in immortalized DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblast cell line

Symbol Functions
APCDD1 • Directly regulated by the β-catenin/T-cell factor signaling complex
• Increased expression in colon cancer cells and potential roles in colorectal tumorigenesis [75].
TWIST2 • A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor
• Inhibits both p21WAF1/Cip1 (cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor) and muscle creatinine kinase (MCK)
• Functional association with cellular growth arrest and myogenesis specific expression [76]
• Possibly alternate regulatory factor involved in the lowered expression of p21WAF1/Cip1 in DF-1 cells that in turn would support the faster growth rate that is characteristic of the DF-1 cell line [19].
TMEM116 • Unknown functions
• A single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in human [77]
MYH6 • Alpha subunit of cardiac muscle myosin
• Association cytoskeletal or muscle architecture [78]
• Taken together with MYL10 (myosin light chain 10), which is up-regulated in DF-1 cells (Additional file 2), mutations are associated with cardiomyopathy or cardiac hypertrophy [79]
CARD11 • Known as Carma1 belonging to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family that is essential in antigen receptor-induced nuclear factor κB (NF- κB) activity in T-cell activation [80]
PLEK2 • A membrane associated protein containing PH (pleckstrin homology) motifs that bind polyphosphoinositides
• Roles in orchestrating cytoskeletal structural arrangement [81]
OSGIN1 • Known as BDGI [BMSC (bone marrow stromal cell)- derived growth inhibitor] or OKL38 (pregnancy-induced growth inhibitor)
• Suppression of the growth of MCF7 human breast cancer cell by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis when OSGIN1 was ectopically expressed exogenously [82]
COLEC10 • Known as CLL1 (colletin liver 1), a member of the C-lectin family
• Roles in initial host defense by binding sugars on the cell surface of microorganisms through their carbohydrate recognition domain [83].
• Essential host factor for early replication of influenza virus in cultured cells revealed by genome wide siRNA screening [84]
• Its mRNA down-regulated in human liver hepatocellular carcinoma by microarray analysis [85].
SOCS1 • Suppression of many cytokine-signaling pathways by inhibiting JAK tyrosine kinase activity and functions as antioncogene by antagonizing tumor cell growth [86].
VPS13B • Known as COH1, involved in intracellular vesicle-mediated sorting and transport of proteins and with Cohen syndrome, which is an autosomal recessive disorder in human caused by the genetic mutation in COH1 gene [87].
Symbol Functions
NOV • Known as CCN3, a member of the secreting insulin like growth factor binding protein family with antiprolifereative effects on tumor cells [88, 89].
SLC25A4 • Known as ANT1 (adenine nucleotide translocator 1)
• Localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane, exchanges cytosolic ADP for mitochondrial ATP, and induces apoptosis by the mitochondrial recruitment of NF-κB [90].
• Decrease in ANT1 might play in a role in immortalization characteristics by suppressing the induction of apoptosis in DF-1 cells.
CDKN2B • Known as p15INK4B, CDK4/6 inhibitor
• Arrest cell cycle and induce cellular senescence [91].
• The down-regulation in DF-1 cells caused by hyper-methylation
• Functional roles both in the progression of cellular senescence and in brain development were reported previously [92, 93].
ST3GAL1 • Type II membrane protein that catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to galactose-containing substrates
• A knock-out mutation increases apoptosis of mouse T lymphocytes expressing the CD8 complex, indicating a homeostatic function of STGAL1 in T lymphocyte [94].
PTGS2 • Known as COX2 (cyclooxygenase 2), the key rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis with both dioxygenase and peroxidase activity
• Inhibition of apoptosis by suppressing caspase pathways and the increase of survival mechanisms through Akt activation [95].
CTHRC1 • A secreted protein in injured and diseases arteries that inhibits collagen expression and promotes cell migration [96].
EPHA3 • A unique member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family
• Roles in regulating cell shape and cell movement [97].
MANSC1 • A protein containing a MANSC (motif at N terminus with seven cysteines) domain that presents certain membrane- and extracellular proteins such as LPR11 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 11) and HAI1 (hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor 1) [98]
• Unknown the functions
CCK • A gastrointestinal and neuronal peptide with important regulatory roles in the digestive tract and nervous system, including both acute and more chronic trophic effects
• Binding its receptor triggers the activation of multiple signal transduction pathways that relay the mitogenic signal to the nucleus and promote cell proliferation [99].
MAB21L1 • A knock-out mutation led to the defects in eye and perputial gland formation [100]