Levels of pERK, p-p38 and pJNK after hydrogen peroxide (H
) (A), human insulin (B), human TGF-beta1 (C) or LPS (D) stimulation of An. gambiae 4a3B cells. Samples were collected at 5 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h and 24 h after stimulation (n = 3-9 for each treatment and each timepoint). Levels of phospho-MAPKs were normalized to GAPDH and control levels and are indicated as fold change relative to control (indicated as "1"). For the sake of readability, a single control is indicated for each condition for each MAPK. Biological replicates of samples are shown as individual data points. Overall significance values of all data sets were determined by the Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's post test for pairwise comparisons (α = 0.05). * Denotes significant (p < 0.05) differences between treatments or between treatment and control groups connected by brackets.