An overview of mammalian MAPK signaling pathways. This signaling diagram was adapted from the KEGG Pathway Database  updated with information from current literature [13, 43]. OMNIGRAFFLE (The Omni Group, Seattle, WA) was used for drawing and layout. Signaling flows from left to right with ligands and receptors, followed by MAP4Ks, MAP3Ks, MAP2Ks and MAPKs. Orthologs identified in the genome of An. gambiae are shown in red. As shown in the legend on the right, arrows indicate directed interactions, e.g., phosphorylation, whereas lines indicate binding interactions. Indirect interactions are shown using dashed lines. Boxes are used to indicate sets of targets that share a common set of inputs or outputs.