Effect of cold-adaptation (25°C/72 h) and cold storage (0°C/48 h) on protein and non-protein thiols. (A) Cold-adaptation prevents the significant loss of protein thiols (PSH) that occurs during cold storage/rewarming (*P < 0.01 vs. 37°C control; ** P < 0.001 vs. 37°C+0°C+RW; n = 5 experiments), possibly by the reduction of oxidized proteins during the rewarming phase (+P < 0.05 vs. 25°C+0°C; n = 5 experiments). (B) Cold-adapted cells have a significantly higher level of glutathiolated protein (PSSG) than non-adapted cells (37°C) following cold storage/rewarming (**P < 0.05 vs. 37°C+0°C+RW; n = 5 experiments). (C). Cold-adaptation attenuates the increase in GSSG/tGSH, indicative of oxidative stress, that occurs during cold storage/rewarming (*P < 0.001 vs. 37°C control; **P < 0.001 vs. 37°C+0°C+RW; n = 3 experiments). Open bars represent cell cold-adapted at 25°C for 72 h; closed bars represent cells maintained at 37°C for 72 h.