Sytox cell permeability assay of COS-5.44 resistant Arl1 overexpressing strain vs. vector control (BY4743). A) Vector control (BY4743) shows significantly higher cell membrane permeability compared with overexpressing strain Arl1 (B) after treatment with chitosan oligosaccharide (COS-5.44). A large increase in cell membrane permeability is observed in the wild type as chitosan oligosaccharide concentration is increased (A). The first peak (left) in the graph corresponds to the background fluorescence and the second peak (right) corresponds to the Sytox signal observed inside the cell due to nucleic acid binding. C) Overlay of 3 replicates of each strain Sytox assay after exposure to112.5 μg/ml COS-5.44. Student t-test of C) data, P-value < 0.0101.