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Table 2 Substrates converted by Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a

From: Complete genome sequence and metabolic potential of the quinaldine-degrading bacterium Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a

Carbon source, concentration

Prediction from genome

Growth in mineral medium/comments

Aromatic compounds

Benzoate, 2 mM

incomplete

2-Nitrobenzoate, 2 mM

absent

Anthranilate (2-aminobenzoate), 2 mM

present, CoA thioester pathway

+

3-Hydroxyanthranilate (2-amino-3-hydroxybenzoate), 2 mM

absent

–/cometabolic conversion

5-Hydroxyanthranilate (2-amino-5-hydroxybenzoate), 2 mM

n.s.

–/cometabolic conversion

Salicylate (2-hydroxybenzoate), 2 mM

absent

3-Hydroxybenzoate, 2 mM

n.s.

4-Hydroxybenzoate, 2 mM

present, via protocatechuate

+

Gentisate (2,5-dihydroxybenzoate), 2 mM

n.s.

Protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoate), 2 mM

present, ortho pathway

+

Vanillate (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate), 2 mM

present

+

Phenylethylamine, 2 mM

incomplete

Phenylacetate, 2 mM

incomplete

–/cometabolic conversion

4-Hydroxyphenylacetate, 2 mM

present, via homoprotocatechuate

+

Homoprotocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate), 2 mM

present, meta pathway

+

Tyrosine, 2 mM

present, via 4-hydroxyphenylacetate and homoprotocatechuate

+

4-Hydroxymandelate [2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetate], 2 mM

incomplete

Phenol, 1 mM

incomplete; possible monooxygenation

–/no hydroxylation to catechol

Catechol, 1 mM

incomplete

–/cometabolic conversion to cis,cis-muconate within 1–2 days (cells pre-grown with protocatechuate) or 4–5 days (cells grown on other C sources)*

Styrene (ethenylbenzene), 1 mM

incomplete

–/cometabolic conversion

Biphenyl, 2 mM

incomplete

4-Phenoxybenzoate, 1 mM

n.s.

* by resting cells (OD600 nm ~20) pre-grown in MM supplemented with glucose as carbon source (0.5%), or with glucose plus 1 mM or 2 mM of either benzoate, anthranilate, biphenyl, homoprotocatechuate, protocatechuate, or catechol.

N - Heterocyclic compounds

Hypoxanthine and xanthine, 2 mM

present

+

Quinaldine (2-methylquinoline), 2 mM

present

+

1H-4-Oxoquinaldine, 1 mM

present

+

1H-3-Hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine, 1 mM

present

+

Sugars (and - derivatives)

Glucose, 0.25% and 0.5%

present

+

Fructose, 0.5%

present

+

Galactose, 0.5%

present

+

L-Arabinose, 0.5%

present

+

Mannose, 0.5%

present

+

Ribose, 0.5%

present

+

Rhamnose, 0.5%

incomplete

+

Xylose, 0.5%

present

+

Lactose, 0.25%

present

+

Sucrose, 0.25%

present

+

Trehalose, 0.25%

possibly via maltose

+

Maltose, 0.25%

n.s.

+

D-Glucosamine, 0.5%

present

+

N-Acetyl-β-D-glucosamine, 0.5%

present

+

Alcohols and carboxylic acids

Ethanol (0.5% and 1%)

present

+

Glycerol (1%)

present

+

2-Chloroacetate, 1 mM, 3 mM, 10 mM

n.s.

Acetate, 1 mM, 3 mM

present

+

Glycolate (2-hydroxyethanoic acid), 10 mM

absent

Glyoxylate, 10 mM

present

+

Pyruvate, 40 mM

present

+

Glutarate, 10 mM

absent

D-Gluconate, 0.5%

present

+

Lipids

Triacylglycerides: Tributyrin

absent

–/no zones of clearing on tributyrin plates

Monoacylglycerides: 1-Oleyl-rac-glycerol, 2 mM

present

+

Natural polymers

Starch

present

+/growth and zones of clearing on starch plates

Pectin

n.s.

Lichenin

n.s.

Carboxymethylcellulose

n.s.

Chitin

n.s.

Protein

present

+/growth and zones of clearing on skim milk plates

Amines , amides and related compounds

Choline (N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium chloride), 0.2%

via glycine betaine

+

Glycine betaine (2-trimethylammonioacetate), 0.5%

incomplete

+

Creatinine (2-amino-1-methyl-5H-imidazol-4-one), 0.2%

absent

Creatine [2-(1-methylcarbamimidamido)acetate], 0.2%

present, via sarcosine

+

Sarcosine [2-(methylamino)acetic acid], 0.5%

present

+

Putrescine (butane-1,4-diamine), 5 mM

present, via 4-aminobutyrate

+

Agmatine [N-(4-aminobutyl)guanidine sulfate], 15 mM

incomplete, via putrescine

+

Allantoin [(2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)urea], 0.2%

incomplete

+

Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), 10 mM

incomplete

Nitrogen sources

Prediction from genome

Growth in mineral medium with glucose

Urea, 0.2%

present

+

Allantoin [(2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)urea], 0.02%, 0.2%

incomplete

+

Creatine [2-(methylguanidino)ethanoic acid], 0.2%

present

+

Putrescine (butane-1,4-diamine), 5 mM

present

+

Agmatine [N-(4-aminobutyl)guanidine sulfate], 5 mM

incomplete

+

Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), 5 mM

absent

Sulfur source

Prediction from genome

Growth in mineral medium with glucose

Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), 1 mM

sulfite formation by taurine dioxygenase

+

  1. n.s., not specified.