An example of regulatory small RNAs derived from a cis -NAT pair. (A) A cis- NAT pair was formed with genes UDP-glucoronosyl and UDP-glucosyl transferase (Os05t0500000-00) and predicted CDS without any protein hits (Os05t0500101-01). Os05t0500000-00 was re-annotated by ssRNA-seq data (short blue lines) from normal condition in the plus strand. Os05t0500101-01 was re-annotated by ssRNA-seq data (short red lines) in the minus strand. The cis- NATs spawned five unique small RNAs, mainly from the plus strand (short green lines). (B) Under cold-stress conditions, expression of this cis- NAT pair was dramatically down-regulated. (C) On the left: Northern blot analysis of the cis- NATs confirmed differential expression levels under normal and cold treatment. On the right: the figure shows the FPKM results of this cis- NAT pair. FPKM refers to Fragments Per Kilobase of exon Models.