(A) Predicted N. lugens Toll receptor family. The domain organization was predicted using the SMART program (http://smart.embl.de/). The extracellular LRRs are shown as rectangles and the characteristic cysteine-rich carboxy-flanking and amino-flanking motifs are shown by triangles, while the intracytoplasmic TIR domains are shown by ellipses. The predicted structure of the N. lugens Toll-13 like gene, including 5′UTR, two exons and 3′UTR, is indicated under the schematic domain representation. The size bar indicates the amino acid residues of the deduced Toll receptors. (B) Phylogenetic analysis of insect TIR domains. The phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the conserved TIR domains by Maximum likelihood, using the program Mega 5.05 (http://www.megasoftware.net/). The Jones-Taylor-Thornton (JTT) for amino acid substitution model was used, while a test of phylogeny was carried out using the bootstrap method with 1000 replications, bootstrap values>50% are shown on each node of the tree. Nl, N. lugens; Dm, Drosophila melanogaster; Ag, Anopheles gambiae; Ap, Acyrthosiphon pisum; Tc, Tribolium castaneum; Am, Apis mellifera; Bm, Bombyx mori.