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Table 4 Differential expression of mammalian milk triglyceride synthesis genes in the ‘lactating’ crop

From: Transcriptome analysis of pigeon milk production – role of cornification and triglyceride synthesis genes

Gene symbol Gene name 0/ctrl +2/ctrl Mice L2/P7
Triglyceride synthesis  
Gyk Glycerol kinase 1.49 1.92 1.26
Gpd1 Glycerol 3-PO4 dehydrogenase (cytosolic) −1.50 −2.08 2.25
Acsl1 Long-chain Acyl-CoA synthetase 1 1.80 2.94 1.51
Acsl4 Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase 4 ns −2.42 −1.35
Gpam; GPAT Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase ns 2.03 −1.22
Agpat3 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 3* ns 1.52 Na
Agpat9 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 9* ns 2.38 Na
Dgat2 Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2* 1.61 3.66 Na
Fatty acid plasma membrane transporters  
Slc27a1 Fatty acid transporter, member 1 −2.21 −2.21 −1.01
Slc27a4 Fatty acid transporter, member 4 ns 2.01 1.99
Cd36 Fatty acid translocase 2.69 5.57 1.08
Fatty acid binding proteins  
Fabp3 Fatty acid binding protein 3, muscle and heart −3.17 −4.88 −1.02
Fabp5 Fatty acid binding protein 5 ns 2.92 1.31
Fatty acid degradation  
Lpl Lipoprotein lipase 1.66 2.08 1.24
Cte1 Cytosolic acyl coenzyme A thioester hydrolase ns 1.59 −16.66
Crat Carnitine acetyltransferase IA ns 1.35 Na
Crat Carnitine acetyltransferase IB ns −2.02 na
Cpt2; CPTII Carnitine acetyltransferase II ns 1.43 −2.56
Ech1 Enoyl coenzyme A hydratase 1, peroxisomal ns 1.69 −2.08
Hadhsc L-3-hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase ns 1.49 −1.20
LOC231086 Betaketothiolase ns 1.23 −1.56
Fatty acid synthesis  
Acly ATP citrate lyase 1.46 1.88 2.66
Mdh1 Malate dehydrogenase, cytosolic 1.19 1.23 1.07
Mod1 Malic enzyme, cytosolic 1.41 2.17 1.54
ACC Acetyl CoA carboxylase 1.68 2.26 Na
Fasn Fatty acid synthase 1.60 2.46 1.65
Scd1 Stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 ns 2.00 1.55^
Scd5 Stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 5* −1.45 −1.48 Na
Fads1 Fatty acid desaturase 1 ns −2.22 2.40
Elovl4 Elongation of very long chain fatty acids 4* ns −7.28 Na
Elovl5 Elongation of very long chain fatty acids 5* ns −2.05 Na
Elovl6 Elongation of very long chain fatty acids 6* 1.32 1.63 Na
Thrsp; Lpgp Spot 14, thyroid hormone-inducible hepatic protein ns −4.90 1.89
  1. Average fold-change of significantly (p < 0.05) differentially expressed triglyceride synthesis genes in the ‘lactating’ pigeon crop at timepoint 0 and +2 as compared to the non-‘lactating’ crop. ns = not significant. Values for lactating mouse mammary gland versus pregnant [19] are given for comparison.
  2. * = pigeon differentially expressed variant, not examined in mouse.
  3. ^ = average of 2 values.