Pathological characteristics of tibia growth plates due to thiram at day 1. C, control group; T, thiram-fed group. a. Compared with the control group, the growth plate of thiram-treated chickens was thicker. b. Histological characteristics of the growth plate of chickens fed thiram. The scale bar indicates 200 μm. A, Articulus zone; P, proliferative zone; PH, pre-hypertrophic zone; H, hypertrophic zone. Chondrocytes at the thickened proliferative and prehypertrophic zones were sparse. Pre-hypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes exhibited pyknosis. The number of empty cartilage capsules was increased, while the number of blood vessels was reduced, with angionecrosis seen at the pre-hypertrophic zone. c. Possible apoptotic cells are shown with pyknotic nuclei, enlarged dilated cisternae of the ER that formed a continuous network, and concentrated cytoplasm. The scale bar indicates 1 μm.