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Table 2 Estimates of variance explained by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for various apple fruit traits; FF: fruit firmness; WCI: weighted cortical intensity; IB: internal browning; TA: titratable acidity; CR: fruit splitting; BP: bitter pit

From: Novel genomic approaches unravel genetic architecture of complex traits in apple

Trait h A 2 1 GWAS2 h G 2 3
FF 0.39 0.03 0.43
WCI 0.26 0.25 0.50
IB 0.49 0.11 0.16
TA 0.15 0.07 0.31
CR 0.30 0.11 0.23
BP 0.22 0.12 0.25
  1. 1Estimates of narrow-sense heritability (h2) obtained using pedigree-based relationships matrix (A). Approximate standard errors of h A 2 estimates varied from 0.12 (for TA) to 0.30 (for IB).
  2. 2Proportion of the phenotypic variance explained jointly by genome-wide significant SNPs.
  3. 3Simultaneously using all 2,500 markers in the form of the G matrix. Approximate standard errors of h G 2 estimates varied from 0.02 (for IB) to 0.04 (for WCI).