Chromatographic characterization of the E. arvense extracts to identify quantitative and qualitative differences in phenyl carboxylic acid and flavonoid composition. (A) A TLC plate developed with natural product / polyethylene glycol reagent, viewed under 366 nm UV light. (B) Stacked LC-PDA chromatograms observed at 280 nm. The letter “a” denotes dicaffeoyltartaric (chicoric) acid, which was only detected in the sample from India. Rf: relative front. (C) Stacked LC-ESI(−)-MS chromatograms. (D) The number of peaks detected in the TLC, LC-PDA and LC-MS chromatograms using the msProcess peak detection software. Means and standard deviations were calculated from biological replicates. * Represents a statistical significance of p < 0.05.