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Table 2 Up-regulated gene functions in cell cultures at 12 th passage as compared to cells at 4 th passage

From: Gene expression modifications in Wharton’s Jelly mesenchymal stem cells promoted by prolonged in vitro culturing

Class Gene Description Functions Ref
IL1 NODE IL1 Pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in host defense Activation of NF-kappaB; Induction of acute and chronic inflammation [20]
IL1B Cytokine activated by Caspase 1 Cell proliferation; Cell differentiation; Apoptosis [21]
IL1R1 Cytokine receptor 1 Immune and inflammatory response [20]
S100A13 Calcium binding protein induced by inflammatory stress Cell cycle progression; Cellular differentiation [22]
TWIST2 MSCs marker Negative regulator of IL1B; Cell lineage determination; Cellular differentiation [23, 24]
AKT NODE AKT Protein kinase B Cellular growth; Mitosis; Cellular differentiation [25]
RAC2 Member of Rho GTPase family Proliferation; Cellular differentiation; Cytoskeletal organization; Cellular adhesion; Membrane trafficking, Transcriptional regulation [26, 27]
PTPRF LAR protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma family Neuronal differentiation; Cellular development [28]
Transcription regulators CREBBP CREB binding protein Histone acetyltransferase activity; Transcriptional regulation [29]
PARP1 Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase Cellular proliferation; Cellular differentiation [30]
HNRNPAB Ribonucleoprotein associated with pre-mRNAs RNA processing and trafficking; Cellular differentiation [31]
NONO RNA-binding protein Transcriptional regulation; RNA splicing; RNA retention in nucleus [32]
Cytoskeleton organization ACTR3 Actin-related protein Neuronal differentiation [33]
NISCH Nischarin Negative role in cell migration [34]
Neural markers EPHA4 Ephrin recepotor of protein-tyrosine kinase family Nervous system development [35]
MT2A Melatonin recepror 2 Expressed in neural progenitor [36]
CDH2 Cadherin Cellular differentiation via RAC [37]
  ERRFI1 Cytoplasmic protein Induced by cellular stress; Cell signalling [38]
  RNF7 Ring finger protein Part of protein degradation machinery; Antiapoptotic activity via JUN [39]
  LYN v-yes-1 Yamaguchi sarcoma viral related oncogene Tyrosine kinase activity; Cellular proliferation [40]