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Table 3 Down-regulated gene functions in cell cultures at 12 th passage as compared to cells at 4 th passage

From: Gene expression modifications in Wharton’s Jelly mesenchymal stem cells promoted by prolonged in vitro culturing

Class Gene Description Functions Ref
TP53 NODE TP53 Major tumor protein suppressor Cell cycle; Apoptosis; Senescence [41, 42]
UBE2D3 Member of E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme family Protein degradation machinery [43]
MAP2K3 Protein kinase activated by environmental stress Gene expression regulation; Mitosis; Cellular differentiation; Cellular proliferation; Apoptosis; Senescence [44]
ZHX1 Zing finger and homeoboxes gene family Maintenance of TP53 gene silencing [45]
XPO1 Exportin 1 Protein trafficking; Localization of cyclin b; Localization of MPAK; Nuclear export of TP53 [46]
PIN1 Phosphorylation-dependent prolyne isomerase Cellular differentiation; Cellular proliferation; Immune response; Mitosis [47, 48]
CDC27 Component of anaphase promoting complex Mitosis; Ubiquitination [49]
ANAPC2 Anaphase promoting complex Cell cycle control; Ubiquitination [50]
Cell cycle regulation and differentiation TYMS Thymidylate syntase DNA replication and repair; Mitosis [51]
FGFR3 Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 Mitosis; MSCs differentiation [52, 53]
NCAPD2 Subunit of condensin I Mitosis; Proliferation [54, 55]
MITF Transcription factor Cell cycle regulation; Gene expression; Differentiation [5658]
Oxidative stress response RPS3 Ribosomal protein (40s subunit) DNA damage repair; Kinase activity on NFkB complex [59]
NFE2L2 Human basic leucine zipper transcription factor Oxidative stress response [60]
HSP1 Heat-shock protein 1 Protein folding [6163]
NFkB signalling IKBKG Regulatory subunit of IKK complex NFkB activation [64]
MYL5 Myosin light chain NFkB activation [65, 66]
Apoptosis SLC6A4 Membrane serotonin transporter Apoptosis [67]
Histonic modification HAT1 Histone acetyltransferase B Histone acetylation; Aging; Cellular differentiation [68]
HIST1H3C Member of Histone H3 family Transcriptional regulation; Cellular differentiation [69]