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Table 7 Potential genetic gain as estimated empirically from a 5% selection intensity made within families using EBVs (based on pedigree information) and GEBV (based on all SNPs [ m= 6,932]), and expected gain per time unit under the assumption that with use of markers and somatic embryogenesis, the breeding cycle could be reduced from 30 to 10 years by avoiding the 20-year field test and production phases

From: Genomic selection accuracies within and between environments and small breeding groups in white spruce

   Empirical genetic gain
Subpopulation* Trait EBVCV1 GEBVCV1 EBVCV1/yra GEBVCV1/yrb Ratio GEBVCV1/yr/EBVCV1/yr (%)
BG1 ADEN 27.79 24.31 0.93 2.43 262
  AMFA −1.61 −1.31 0.05 0.13 245
  HT17 44.51 37.26 1.48 3.73 251
  DBH17 4.15 3.29 0.14 0.33 237
S1 ADEN 25.23 21.82 0.84 2.18 259
  AMFA −1.72 −1.51 0.06 0.15 263
  HT17 43.43 38.36 1.45 3.84 265
  DBH17 9.27 8.70 0.31 0.87 282
  1. *BG1: both training and testing sets from breeding group 1; S1: both training and testing sets from site 1.
  2. ADEN: average wood density; AMFA: average microfibril angle; HT17: 17-year height; DBH17: 17-year diameter at breast height.
  3. aEBVCV1/TC, where TC =30, and TC is the number of years to complete a breeding cycle with conventional breeding methods.
  4. bGEBVCV1/TE, where TE =10, and TE is the number of years to complete a breeding cycle with genomic selection and somatic embryogenesis to propagate the superior selected material.