Inhibition of L. crispatus or G. vaginalis adhesion to HeLa cells by LEA-specific Fab fragments. Cells of L. crispatus EX533959VC06 (A) or G. vaginalis 101 (B) were pretreated with LEA-specific IgG Fab fragments or unrelated anti-flagellum Fab fragments or left untreated in PBS supplemented with 5 mM PMSF before the adhesion assays. The number of adherent bacteria per epithelial cell in 20 randomly chosen microscopic fields was determined. The assay was performed twice with duplicate samples and the results show mean values of adherent bacteria. The asterisk indicates P < 0.05 as calculated by Student’s t test.