Summary of validation of hyperosmotic effects on intestinal transcription factors discovered from transcriptome by real-time PCR. The transcription factors were examined, and 19/57 were reproducible. Among the candidate genes, 5/19 were found to be specific towards hyperosmotic challenge (red) while others were related to general transfer stress (blue). Small graphs are representative real time PCR results of each category: stress-related, TSC22D3 and SGK1; salinity-related, CEBPD; insignificant change, SBNO2. Statistical significant groups are indicated by asterisks in the bar graphs (Two-way ANOVA, Bonferroni with time-matched comparison.*p < 0.05).