rt-PCR validation of RNA sequencing results. The expression of genes in the fat bodies of bees fed a rich diet containing pollen relative to bees fed a poor diet that did not contain pollen is shown. Grey bars indicate significant over-expression (>1) or under-expression (<1) among N = 3 replicate samples using a Mann–Whitney test where the direction of expression agreed with predictions from the mRNA-seq experiment. Expression normalized relative to actin is shown and agreed with the results for expression normalized to GAPDH. White bars indicate results that, on average, agreed with the results of the mRNA-seq experiments but that were non-significant. Error bars represent the standard error of the mean relative expression value.