Different sources of R-genes plasticity in plants. (A) Evolutionary history of a locus located on the ancestral chromosome A5 showing R-gene conservation as well as CNV and PAV between rice, Brachypodium, sorghum and maize. Conserved genes, non-conserved genes, deleted genes and transposable elements are illustrated according to the legend at the bottom. Dotted black lines link orthologous genes between modern loci at the bottom. The ancestral gene content is illustrated at the top. (B) Illustration of an example of R-gene fusion in cacao after duplication. The dotplot illustrates the two copy-paste regions flanked by TSD (Target Site Duplication as black arrows) motifs and repeated sequence motifs (ctgaaaatg/attaaaatg). R-genes (TIR, NBS, LRR) classes are illustrated according to the color code at the bottom. (C) Illustration of a R-gene (Os06g16330) partially duplicated (Os06g16300) in rice separated by a transposition event (Os06g16310- Os06g16320). The reconstructed evolutionary scenario is illustrated based on a color code illuminating repeat (ancient, recent) and gene (duplicated, non-duplicated, transposase) content. (D) Duplicated R-gene cluster plasticity in maize. One central R-gene cluster (chromosome 1) consisting in R-genes (red) and non R-genes (grey) is duplicated on homeoelogous regions (chromosomes 1-5-7) with distinct R-gene contents.