Experimental validation of QTL2 on chromosome X. A: upper plot shows the region corresponding to QTL2 of which linkage to the phenotype of interest was confirmed by scoring selected marker sites in individual segregants. Scored marker sites are indicated (S4-S7). For each marker site, the p-value indicates the probability to be linked to the phenotype by chance according to a binomial distribution (see materials and methods). Lower plot: zoom in on the genes in the experimentally confirmed region corresponding to QTL2 (29 kb). Black bars: genes with non-synonymous mutations in the coding region; grey bars: genes with mutations in the promotor or terminator; white bars: genes without mutations. B: Reciprocal hemizygosity analysis for the genes with non-synonymous mutations in the coding regions located in the fine-mapped region. To that end, two different diploid strains were constructed by crossing the original superior parent VR1-5B with the inferior parent BY4741, carrying a deletion in its allele of the candidate causative gene or the other way around. Hence, this resulted in two different diploid strains, each with only one functional allele of the candidate causative gene, originating from either the ‘superior’ or the ‘inferior’ parent. The ethanol tolerance of the two diploid strains was compared with dilution spot growth assays on a YPD plate with 16% ethanol and a YPD plate without ethanol as control.