Regulation of the Toll and IMD pathway for BttO and BttP 6 h after infection. Illustrated are the Toll and IMD pathways after  for the two populations of T. castaneum Cro1 and SB and for the two infection methods BttO and BttP. Red indicates significant upregulation and blue significant downregulation of respective genes. The corresponding official gene IDs (’TC######’) are specified next to the genes. When different gene family members are both significantly up- and downregulated, genes are presented in a purple manner and the colors of the corresponding official gene ID indicate in more detail which isoforms are up- and which ones are downregulated. Only effectors that are differentially expressed 6 h after infection in at least one treatment are indicated with their respective official gene IDs; see also Additional file 7.