Sequence and epigenetic features of different promoter types. (a), (b) and (c) The cumulative distributions of GC content, Regulatory Potential and sequence conservation for the three promoter types: UniPs (green), KBiPs (blue) and NBiPs (red). All measurements are based on a 2 kb region surrounding the TSS. Promoter sequence conservation was calculated using PhastCons scores, based on 17 vertebrate species’ genomes. Promoter Regulatory Potential was calculated using Regulatory Potential (RP) scores (see Methods). (d), (e) The density (panel d) and the shape (panel e) of H3K4me3 modification profiles at each of the three promoter types. (f) DNA methylation profile at each of the three promoter types. (g) PABPN1 expression across human tissues calculated using Body Map data. (h), (i) The expression change distribution for different transcript types in a PABPN1 knockdown experiment. The positive values indicate expression upregulation following PABPN1 knockdown.