SAL1 gene in tef and other grasses. A) The SAL1 gene duplicated before the divergence of the grasses and has also undergone several recent duplications in one branch of the phylogenetic tree. The ML tree was constructed using the WAG protein substitution model implemented in PhyML (version 3.0). Branch support was inferred using the conservative and non-parametric Shimodaira–Hasegawa-like (SH) aLRT provided by PhyML. Only branch support values less than 0.85 are shown. Abbreviations: Et: Eragrostis tef; Sb: Sorghum bicolor; Os: Oryza sativa; Bradi: Brachypodium distachyon; Si: Setaria italica. B) Comparison of orthologous syntenic genomic regions between tef, sorghum, and setaria. The SAL1 gene appears on three scaffolds in the tef genome, twice as tandem duplicates and once as a tandem triplicate and is found as a tandem duplicate in rice, setaria and sorghum. Orange blocks indicate unsequenced regions created from the scaffolding. C) Distribution of Ks values for all pairwise comparisons of SAL1 gene family members.