Experiment scheme followed in the spaceflight and the concurrent ground study . Briefly, each of the two CCMs were loaded with six bioreactors. One CCM was operated in the spaceflight and the other one on ground, concurrently. Both CCMs followed same protocol depicted in the figure; where the top row shows the overall assay sequence segregated into three time zones: (i) the first 10 days, (ii) 11th day and (iii) the last 5 days of the space mission. The protocol carried out on the 11th day is elaborated inside the box bordered by the broken lines. The cells received typical nourishments during first 10 days of space mission. At the beginning of the 11th day, 100 μg/ml LPS were injected to the flowpaths of bioreactors 5 and 6 in both CCMs (arrowhead with LPS 0 h). Four hours later, the same amount of LPS was injected into bioreactor 3 and 4 (arrowhead with LPS 4 h); and after the subsequent four hours, RLT solution was discharged, replacing the media in the flowpaths of all bioreactors [1–6] (arrowhead with RLT 8 h). The biosamples in the bioreactors [1–6] in both gravity limits were preserved in the RLT solution till the space shuttle landed 5 days after the RLT discharge. We collected the bioreactors 3 hours after the landing.