Hemolymph acid–base status Hyas araneus (A, pH-values; B, bicarbonate levels; C, P CO
levels) in response to different exposure experiments. Squares represent the means with error bars depicting the standard error for each treatment. Grey squares refer to treatments at 5°C and black squares to treatments at 10°C. One-way ANOVAs were used to identify the effect of seawater PCO2 concentration on hemolymph pH, bicarbonate (HCO3−) and PCO2. A Holm-Sidak test for multiple comparisons was used for posteriori analysis (p < 0.05). Differing letters indicate significant differences; identical letters indicate no significant difference. Capital letters denote differences for 5°C treatments and lower cases for 10°C treatments.