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Table 1 Overview over effects observed in space-flight isolation experiments after analysis of urine proteomics.

From: Time-course human urine proteomics in space-flight simulation experiments

Time range early intermediate late
week of isolation before isolation and
week 1-6
week 7 - 11 week 12 - 15 and after isolation
NaCl consumption 12 g/day (week 1-6) 9 (week 7-9), 12 (week 10) and 6 g/day (week 11) 6 g/day (week 12-15)
Activated biological processes (enrichment analysis) inflammation, cell adhesion, blood coagulation, proteolysis, angiogenesis, Ca2+ binding, extracellular region cell division, lipid metabolism, skin development, keratinization, chromatin remodeling, response to oxidative stress and hypoxia, regulation of apoptosis response to drug/toxin, small molecule metabolic process, intracellular, Mg2+ binding, response to Zinc, Cell death, G-protein coupled receptor, regulation of blood pressure (renin/angiotensin)
Activated pathways (PSF analysis) immune response; nervous system; nucleotide, amino acid and lipid (butanoate) metabolism digestive system; metabolism; regenerative processes (Wnt-signaling pathway and N-glycan biosynthesis) signal transduction; response to stress (p53-, mTOR-signaling pathway), energy metabolism (ubiquinone biosynthesis)
Activated tissue responses Liver, kidney, pancreas, (partly skin) muscle testis, stomach, (partly liver and kidney)
Relation to previous results NaCl related interactome activated [10], NaCl storage in an osmotically inactive form and micro-vascularization [6, 7], renal proteins activated [11] blood pressure decrease and aldosterone level increase [4]
Total protein abundance increasing and high decreasing low
Percentage of proteins up-regulated 27% 20%
Percentage of invariant, noisy and single spiked proteins >50%
Up-regulated modules G, E, D, M, N, L J, P, Q R
Down-regulated modules R, Q, J, P D, E, G, Q, R G, E, D, M, N, L, P
Module-related proteins (differential abundance) see Additional file 2
Module-related proteins (absolute abundance) see Additional file 3