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Table 1 Comparison of biological differences between A. cerana and A. mellifera

From: Uncovering the novel characteristics of Asian honey bee, Apis cerana, by whole genome sequencing

  A. cerana A. mellifera Reference
Aria of origin Southeast Asia Africa or Western Asia  
Body mass 43.8 mm 77.2 mm [17]
Wing length (worker) 7.54 ± 1.14 mm 9.32 ± 0.16 mm [18]
Wing beat frequencies (worker) 306 beats/s 235 beats/s  
Nest cavity volume 10-15 liters in general 35 liters, [19]
Comb structure Uneven round Square  
Dismantling of old comb Yes No [4]
Pore in the drone cell Yes No [20]
Flight pattern Rapid, hasty, and unpredictably zig-zag Steady and clumsy [4]
Homing speed (~50 m) 192 sec 295 sec [21]
Foraging range Maximum 1500 m to 2500 m Average 1650 m, maximum 6 km [22]
Active foraging time and temperature range 9 am and 11.30 am/15.5 - 21°C 11 am and 1 pm/21–25°C [23]
Flower preference Wide range of flowers, including wild plants Mainly on Trifolium and Brasscia [24]
Pollination Larger pollen collector Smaller pollen collector (compared to A. cerana) [10]
Robbing defense Weak Strong [10]
Frequencies of absconding Often (heavily depends on condition) Rarely (heavily depends on condition) [8]
Collecting propolis No Yes [4]
Defense to wasps Forming a ball with worker Individual [11, 12]
Varroa mite resistance Yes No [13]
Ventilation direction Head toward outside Head toward entrance [7, 12]
Royal jelly production rate 3.21 ± 0.43 g 80.5 ± 7.83 g [23]
Rate of stinging Low High [4]