Actual and expected frequency distribution of gene overlap from a query signature with other reference signatures. Comparison of genes from (A) 36-gene ovarian cancer prognostic gene signature, (B) tumor breast obesity gene signature and (C) tumor breast IGF1 gene signature, with other reference gene signatures for that disease. (D) Comparison of the actual frequency distribution generated from tumor breast obesity (From B) and tumor breast IGF1 (From C). The expected frequency distributions were generated via performing N simulations, where N is 100, 1000 or 10000. The y-axis is log10 transformed. p1 denotes the two-sided p-value from Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic which tests if the actual and expected (for N = 100) distribution are similar. p2 denotes the p-value that represents the significance of that threshold in dichotomizing statistically novel or common biomarkers from a GSS of interest.