Transcriptional response to ICS treatment. The transcriptional response to ICS differs significantly for different functional classes of proteins. Asthmatic patients overexpress several proteolytic enzymes in comparison to control subjects (D): ICS treatment returns the expression of these genes to baseline values. Asthma-associated changes in gene expression involved in immune signaling (A) as well as extracellular proteins (B) are reversed in some cases. ICS treatment has variable effect on the changes in expression of genes implicated in intracellular signaling pathways (C); in some cases, asthma-associated changes in gene expression are augmented by ICS therapy.