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Table 1 Variability in key residues of the protein kinase catalytic domain. The residues indicated at the top are: G1, G2, G3, the three residues constituting the glycine triad (corresponding to G51, 53 and G56 in human PKAα), and which form a hairpin enclosing part of the ATP molecule; the lysine in subdomain II (K73), which contacts the α- and β-phosphate of ATP, anchoring and orienting the ATP; the glutamate of subdomain III (E92), which forms a salt bridge with the former residue; the aspartate and asparagine within the HRDXXXXN signature motif of ePKs in subdomain VIB (D167, N172), the former of which is thought to be the catalytic residue acting as a base acceptor; the aspartate in the DFG motif of subdomain VII (D185), which binds to the Mg2+ (or Mn2+) ion associated with the β-and γ-phosphates of ATP; the glutamate in subdomain VIII (E209), which forms a salt bond with the arginine in subdomain XI and provides structural stability of the C-terminal lobe; and the aspartate in subdomain IX (D221), which is involved in structural stability of the catalytic loop of subdomain VI through hydrogen bonding with the backbone. The conservation status of these residues in the 65 malarial typical ePKs is summarized at the top of the Table, and that of the 20 FIKK family members is presented at the bottom. It is immediately apparent that with the exception of the Glycine triad in subdomain I, all important residues are extremely well conserved in the FIKK sequences

From: Protein kinases of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: the kinome of a divergent eukaryote

Residue G1 G2 G3 K E D N D(FG) E D R
"Typical" ePKs (65)            
Number not conserved 16 10 27 0 4 0 0 1 5 2 2
% conserved 75 85 58 100 94 100 100 98 92 97 97
Amino-acid substitution    11S
  I MAL7P1_18
N PF14_0408
N PFA0380A
K PFB0665w
   K PFB0665w Q MAL6P1_108
Y PF11_0060
Y PF11_0220
N PF11_0377
Q PFC0420w
E PF11_0220
L PFI1415w
N MAL7P1-18
N PF10_0160
Lacking all three Gs in subdomain I MAL7P1-18
Number not conserved 13 12 17 0(a) 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
  All 20 FIKK have a conserved W in a [ILV][YF]W[NTS]XX[GC] motif approx 100 residues upstream of the FIKK motif        E PF14_0733  
% conserved 28 33 5 100 100 100 100 100 100 95 100
  1. Note: a. This residue corresponds to the first K in the FIKK motif.