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Figure 12 | BMC Genomics

Figure 12

From: The zebrafish progranulin gene family and antisense transcripts

Figure 12

Diagrammatic representation of the structures and evolutionary origins of the granulin in multicelluar organisms. Evolutionary distances in millions of years derived from Hedges 2002 [77]. The estimated rounds of vertebrate genome duplication events are indicated (1R, 2R, 3R). The various progranulin structures were derived from various databases as outlined below. Land plant – (Arabidopsis thaliana) – Papain-like thiol protease bearing a carboxyl-terminal granulin domain (AAK71314); Slime mold – (Dictyostelium discoideum) – 1 copy progranulin from a single EST (AU267401) Trematode worm (Schistosoma japonicum) – 9 copy progranulin built from a combination of four ESTs (AY810079, BU790215, BU799560, BU771494); Nematode worm – (Caenorhabditis elegans) – 3 copy progranulin from single EST (NM_060580) – overall architecture confirmed by genome sequence (Z81595); Annelid worm (earthworm – Lumbricus rubellus) – 1 copy progranulin from a single EST (CO046860); Primitive chordate – (Sea squirt, Ciona intestinalis) – 7 copy progranulin predicted from draft genomic sequence (AABS01000126) and overall architecture confirmed by ESTs. Domains 2 to 7 nearly identical (BW368775, BW311239). Amphibian – (Frog, Xenopus laevis) co-orthologues progranulins A and B consisting of one-half domain followed by 12 full domains and one-half domain followed by nine full domains respectively [78]. These are structurally closely related and are a result of a recent tetraploidization event 30 mya [79]. Avian (chicken – Gallus gallus) – 4 copy progranulin built from three ESTs (BM440305, BU297352 and BX265765) – overall architecture confirmed by genome sequence (LOC426606); Human (Homo sapiens) – Progranulin composed of one half domain followed by 7 domains (UniProt entry: P28799); Teleost – Takifugu rubripes – 2, 3 and 11 copy progranulins predicted from draft genome sequences (M000077, S002118, S0001020) with overall structures confirmed by ESTs (CA846088, CA332411, AL842916, CA588603). Teleost – Danio rerio: from this study: co-orthologue progranulins A and B composed of 10 (NM_001001949) and 9 (AY289606) respectively; two smaller progranulins consisting of 1 and one half granulin repeats (AF273479, AF273480).

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