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Table 2 Fold copy number change (ΔKCt) for the 12 22q11DS patients, 22q11 Duplication and 4 controls. ΔKCt values of 0 ± 0.35 indicate an equal ratio of the target and reference, which corresponds to no loss and therefore no genetic abnormality, values of -1 ± 0.35 indicate loss of one copy (microdeletion), whilst values of 1 ± 0.35 (seen for the trisomy 22 patient) indicate gain of one copy (microduplication).

From: A method for accurate detection of genomic microdeletions using real-time quantitative PCR

Sample Types Samples qPCR Primers of the 22q11.2 DS Region
   D22S181 PRODH TUPLE1 COMT ZNF74 PIK4 LZTR1 CAT4 D22S936 VPREB1
   Fold copy number change (ΔKCt)
Normal Controls 1 -0.1601 0.2039 0.1716 0.1273 0.0744 0.1097 -0.1598 0.0175 -0.2195 0.1782
  2 0.0881 -0.0115 -0.0703 -0.0045 -0.0744 -0.1421 0.0538 -0.1002 -0.0327 0.1738
  3 -0.0802 -0.1322 -0.0202 0.0471 0.1633 0.0211 0.1497 -0.1193 0.1580 -0.1393
  4 -0.2727 -0.0602 -0.0812 -0.1700 0.2048 0.0113 -0.2035 -0.1173 -0.1508 -0.2128
22q11DS Tuple1 Deleted 1 -0.2006 -1.2337 -1.2173 -0.9261 -1.2366 -1.1903 -0.9009 -1.1467 -1.1305 0.0140
  2 0.1987 -1.1857 -1.2806 -1.1102 -0.8132 -0.9187 -1.2182 -0.8644 -1.1021 -0.0667
  3 -0.0035 -1.2003 -1.1671 -1.2660 -1.0857 -1.2183 -0.8808 -1.1124 -1.3388 -0.3315
  4 -0.0387 -1.2372 -1.2534 -1.2976 -0.9337 -1.1139 -1.1951 -0.9513 -0.9711 0.0759
  5 -0.2601 -0.9173 -1.1538 -0.9330 -0.9639 -0.9715 -1.2522 -1.0367 -1.1721 0.1191
  6 0.0158 -1.0541 -1.1710 -0.8799 -0.9787 -0.9763 -1.0172 -0.9620 -1.3164 0.1496
22q11DS Tuple1 Not-Deleted 1 0.0670 -0.1259 0.0717 -0.1508 0.2653 -0.0241 -0.1144 -0.1205 0.0881 0.0140
  2 -0.0325 -0.0797 -0.1033 -0.1055 0.1414 -0.0507 -0.1921 -0.1158 -0.0905 -0.0667
  3 -0.1568 -0.0003 0.1309 -0.1154 0.1521 -0.0615 -0.0400 0.1025 0.1660 -0.3315
  4 -0.0737 -0.1425 0.0046 0.0205 0.2222 -0.0246 -0.1283 0.1719 0.1093 0.0759
  5 0.1166 0.0283 -0.0596 0.1068 0.1951 -0.0478 -0.1887 0.1936 0.0282 0.1191
  6 -0.0508 0.1578 0.0755 0.0324 0.1366 -0.0066 0.0569 0.1882 0.0900 0.1496
22q11 Duplication Sample -0.0124 1.1855 0.9201 0.9303 1.0121 0.9377 1.0648 0.9637 1.0250 -0.1863