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Table 1 Thematic associations in studies of fish stress. Computer-assisted analysis of 11129 Medline abstracts was performed as described in Methods. Terms that were over-represented in the abstracts (exact Fisher's test, P < 0.05) are ranked by the numbers of occurrence.

From: Gene expression in the brain and kidney of rainbow trout in response to handling stress

Category Terms (counts/1000 abstracts)
Species Salmonids (126.4), carp (68.9), eels (67.0), catfish (37.7), tilapia (38.7)
Stressors Toxicity (440.6), temperature (178.3), oxygen (91.5), confinement (52.8), salinity (46.2), hypoxia (54.7), diseases (20.8), crowding (23.6), acidosis (17.9), aggressiveness (11.3)
Messengers Cortisol (208.5), catecholamines (159.4), steroids (92.5)
Tissues Muscle (197.2), blood cells (152.9), pituitary (119.8), liver (123.6), epithelia (96.2), brain (90.6), kidney (89.6), heart (51.9), skin (42.5)
Cellular structures Cytosol (42.5), collagen (17.0), cytoskeleton (15.1), microsome (15.1), microtubule (14.2), lysosomes (13.2), peroxisome (4.7)
Oxidative stress Glutathion (167.9), oxidant (93.4), antioxidant (90.6), peroxide (66.0), radical (55.7), superoxide (40.6), catalase (35.8), redox (18.9)
Other processes Immunity (91.5), secretion (80.2), metabolism (74), transport (56.6), defense (52.8), necrosis (28.3), apoptosis (18.9), phosphorylation (15.1), proteolysis (7.5)
Metabolites Ion (987.7), iron (215.1), glucose (141.5), lactate (67.9), lipid (74.5), zinc (51.9), phospholipid (11.3), triglyceride (11.3), lipopolysaccharide (9.4)
Proteins Enzymes (180.2), heat-shock proteins (84.0), hemoglobin (37.7), metallothionein (37.7), transferase (32.1), phosphatase (26.4), chaperones (21.7), glutathion-S-transferase (17.0), transaminase (17.0), Na/K-ATPase (17.0), aminotransferase (8.5), mitogen-activated kinases (4.7)