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Table 1 Gene Ontology evidence codes

From: Experimental-confirmation and functional-annotation of predicted proteins in the chicken genome

Code Description Example
Direct experimental evidence codes
IDA Inferred from Direct Assay enzyme assays
   in vitro reconstitution
   immunofluorescence
   cell fractionation
   physical interaction/binding assay
IGI Inferred from Genetic Interaction "traditional" genetic interactions such as suppressors, synthetic lethals, etc.
   functional complementation
   rescue experiments
   inference about one gene drawn from the phenotype of a mutation in a different gene
IMP Inferred from Mutant Phenotype any gene mutation/knockout
   overexpression/ectopic expression of wild-type or mutant genes
   anti-sense experiments
   RNAi experiments
   specific protein inhibitors
   polymorphism or allelic variation
IPI Inferred from Physical Interaction 2-hybrid interactions
   co-purification
   co-immunoprecipitation
   ion/protein binding experiments
IEP Inferred from Expression Pattern transcript levels (e.g. Northerns, microarray data)
   protein levels (e.g. Western blots)
Indirect evidence codes
NAS Non-traceable Author Statement Database entries that don't cite a paper
TAS Traceable Author Statement original experiments are traceable through that article
IC Inferred by Curator inferred by a curator from other GO annotations
IGC Inferred from Genomic Context operon structure
   syntenic regions
   pathway analysis
   genome-scale analysis of processes
NR Not Recorded used for annotations done before curators began tracking evidence types, not used for new annotations
ND No biological Data available "unknown" molecular function, biological process, cellular component
IEA Inferred from Electronic Annotation "hits" in sequence similarity searches, if they have not been reviewed by curators; transferred from database records, if not reviewed by curators
ISS Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity sequence similarity (homologue of/most closely related to)
   recognized domains
   structural similarity
   Southern blotting
   protein features, predicted or observed (e.g. hydrophobicity, sequence composition)
RCA Inferred from Reviewed Computational Analysis predictions based on large-scale experiments (e.g. genome-wide two-hybrid)
   predictions based on integration of large-scale datasets of several types
   text-based computation (e.g. text mining)