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Table 4 Amino acid alignment of three D. pulex metallothionein genes against those from other crustaceans (decapods) and from selected insectsa.

From: Gene response profiles for Daphnia pulex exposed to the environmental stressor cadmium reveals novel crustacean metallothioneins

Protein domains |-------------- Beta --------------| |------------------- Alpha --------------------|
Mtn1 Anopheles gambiae MPC KC CGN-DC KC TSG---C GSGQPC AT---DC KC AC ASGGC KEKS------------------------------GGCC GK--
Mtn2 Anopheles gambiae MPC KTC VA-DC KC TSP--NC GAGC GC ES---RC TC PC KDGAK----------------------------------EGCC K---
MtnA Drosophila melanogaster MPC P-C GS-GC KC ASQ--ATKGSC NC GS---DC KC G---------------------------------GDKKSA-C GC SE---
MtnB Drosophila melanogaster MVC KGC GT-NC QC SAQ--KC GDNC AC NK---DC QC VC KNGPK----------------------------------DQCC SNK-
MtnC Drosophila melanogaster MVC KGC GT-NC KC QDT--KC GDNC AC NQ---DC KC VC KNGPK----------------------------------DQCC KSK-
MtnD Drosophila melanogaster MGC KAC GT-NC QC SAT--KC GDNC AC SQ---QC QC SC KNGPK----------------------------------DKCC STKN
CuMtn2 Callinectes sapidus CRAB MPC G-C GT-SC KC GSGKCCC GSTC NC TTCPSKQSC SCNDGAC GSAC--------------QC KTSC CC GADC K---C SPC PMK-
Mtn1 Callinectes sapidus CRAB MPGPC C ND-KC VC QEG--GC KAGC QC TS----C RC S-PC QKC TSGC--------------KC ATKEEC SKTC TKP-C SCC PK--
Mtn2 Callinectes sapidus CRAB MPDPC C ND-KC EC KEG--EC KTGC KC KS----C RC P-PC DKC SSEC--------------KC TSKEEC SKTC SKP-C SCC P---
Mtn1 Scylla serrata CRAB -PGPC C ND-KC VC KEG--GC KEGC QC TS----C RC S-PC EKC SSGC--------------KC ANKEEC SKTC SKA-C SCC PT--
Mtn2 Scylla serrata CRAB MPDPC C ID-KC DC KEG--EC KTGC KC TS----C RC P-PC EQC SSGC--------------KC ANKEDC RKTC SKP-C SCC P---
Mtn1 Potamon potamios CRAB -PDPC C AEGTC EC EEG--KC KAGC KC TS----C RC S-PC EKC TSEC--------------EC KSKEEC AKNC TKP-C SCC P---
Mtn Carcinus maenas CRAB MPDPC C ID-KC EC KEG--GC KAGC KC TS----C RC T-PC EKC SSGC--------------KC TTKEDC CKTC TKP-C SCC P---
Mtn Eriocheir sinensis CRAB MPDPC C ND-KC EC KEG--KC EAGC KC TS----C RC P-PC EKC SSGC--------------KC GSKEDC CKTC SKP-C SCC P---
Mtn Portunus pelagicus CRAB MPDPC C ID-KC EC KEG--KC EAGC KC TS----C RC P-PC EKC SSGC--------------KC GSKEDC CKTC SKP-C SCC P---
Mtn Panulirus argus LOBSTER MPGPC C ID-KC EC AEG--KC KSGC QC KS----C TC STPC DKC TTAC--------------CC STKEEC ASKC TKP-C KCC P---
Mtn Homarus americanus LOBSTER MPGPC C KD-KC EC AEG--GC KTGC KC TS----C RC A-PC EKC TSGC--------------KC PSKDEC AKTC SKP-C KCC P---
Mtn Astacus astacus CRAYFISH MPGPC C ND-VC EC AAG--GC KTGC VC TS----C RC S-PC DKC TSGC--------------KC PSKEEC AKTC SKP-C ECC P---
Mtn1 Daphnia pulex cDNA MTKD--------------CC QGKC SC GD---NC KC GPNC AQC PAAA----TC AC ATGGEC KC SGNC QC STSC PCK-SACC K---
Mtn2 Daphnia pulex cDNA MPKEC V------------RC QNGC TC GD---DC KC AANC IKC PTASSQGETC KC STPGGCTC GTNC QC GASC VC KASSCC K---
Mtn3 Daphnia pulex cDNA MPNAC C QN-KC SC GSGCNCC QSKC TC GS---GC KC GPNGAPC QNSA-----C IC ATGGG-GC GSDC RC PTSC GC K-TSCC K---
Mtn3 Daphnia magna cDNA¥ MPNVC C QN-NC SC GNGC TCC QSKC TC GS---GC KC GPNGAPC QNSA-----C IC ATGGG-GC GSDC RC PVSC GC K-TSCC K---
Cysteine residues   0 00    0 0      0   0 0      0 1 1 1  1   1     1 1       1   1 1   2 2  2 22    
    1 23    4 5      6   7 8      9 0 1 2  3   4     5 6       7   8 9   0 1  2 34    
Metal binding     **    * *      *   * *      * *   *  *   *               *     *   *    * **    
  1. aCysteine residues are bold for sites that are conserved in crustacean and insect genes (residues 3–10, 23, 24) and underlined when residues are clade-specific. Assuming a correct alignment, residues 2, 12, 13, 17, 19 and 20 are conserved in all (or most) of the crustacean genes, whereas residues 14 and 22 are conserved in the decapod genes. The residues 15, 16, 18 and 21 are exclusively found in the Daphnia genes (representing branchiopods) and based on the limited sampling of insect genes (from two dipterans), residues 1 and 11 are excluded in the crustacean genes. Domain partitions and metal bind residues (*) are based on experimental evidence from decapod proteins (Valls et al. [41]). ¥ Poynton et al. [19] provides full translation.