Experimental design showing control, continuous exposure treatment to dragonfly larvae or larval salamanders, and removal of the predation threat to allow the tadpoles to recover. These five treatment groups were used to produce the RNAs used in the microarray analysis with the Xenopus genome array. In the group with continuous exposure to predators (Drago or Salam), the tadpoles were under predation threat for the full 8 days. In the groups exposed for a limited period and then allowed to recover (−Drago or −Salam), tadpoles were initially kept with dragonfly larvae or larval salamanders for 4 days to produce the predator-induced phenotype; after 4 days, the predation threat was removed and the tadpoles were allowed to revert to their normal phenotype for 4 days. The control group of tadpoles was not exposed to a predation threat. Four replicate groups were used for each treatment; tadpoles were sampled on day 8. Tail tissues from the tadpoles were used for RNA extraction for the microarray analysis. The microarray analysis was performed in triplicate. Abbreviations: Cont, control; Drago, 8 day dragonfly exposure; Salam, 8 day salamander exposure; −Drago, 4 day exposure to dragonfly threat and 4 day recovery; −Salam, 4 day exposure to salamander threat and 4 day recovery.