Cell wall protein (CWP) promoter (pCWP)–GUS expression in transgenic tomato hairy root line infected with
second-stage juveniles (J2s). Noninfected control (A, C) and infected (B, D) roots harboring the pCWP–GUS fusion construct show no GUS staining of the root or lateral root at 2 and 5 DAI. At 15 DAI, no signal is observed in noninfected roots (A, C, E). Although infected roots at 2 and 5 DAI (B, D) showed no signal, GUS signal is observed in lateral roots associated with galls induced by the invading nematodes at 15 DAI (F). (A–E) Light micrographs as viewed under a light microscope. (F) Bright-field image of galls photographed using a stereomicroscope. Bars: A–E = 100 μm, F = 1000 μm. Differential expression of CWP in OE roots compared with Kan roots obtained in the RNA-Seq data is shown at the bottom of the table.